Rautaki Hanganga o Aotearoa

New Zealand Infrastructure Strategy

References

Ngā Tohutoro

  1. Burgess G, Enzer M, Schooling J et al. Flourishing Systems: Re-envisioning Infrastructure as a Platform for Human Flourishing. Cambridge: Centre for Digital Britain and Centre for Smart Infrastructure & Construction, 2020. DOI number: 10.16863/CAM_52270. https://www.cdbb.cam.ac.uk/files/flourishing-systems_revised_200908.pdf
  2. Deloitte. A Better Way Forward. Building the Road to Recovery Together. Construction Sector Covid-19 Recovery Study. Wellington: New Zealand Infrastructure Commission/Te Waihanga, 2021 https://infracom.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Construction-Sector-Covid-19-Recovery-Study.pdf
  3. Niall, Todd. “Covid-19: Alert Level 4 Costs Auckland Transport $5 Million a Week in Missed Fares.” Stuff, August 19, 2021. Accessed August 28, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/health/coronavirus/126121613/covid19-alert-level-4-costs-auckland-transport-5-million-a-week-in-missed-faresv
  4. ASB. Impacts of COVID-19 on the NZ Tourism Sector. ASB. Wellington, June 30, 2020. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.asb.co.nz/content/dam/asb/documents/reports/economic-note/economic-note-tourism-overview.pdf
  5. NewsnReleases. “Air New Zealand Gets 5 More Months of Government Assistance on Cargo Flights.” May 26, 2021. Accessed July 25, 2021. https://newsnreleases.com/2021/05/26/air-newzealand-gets-5-more-months-of-government-assistance-on-cargo-flights-%EF%BB%BF/
  6. New Zealand Foreign Affairs and Trade. “MFAT Monitoring International Supply Chains.” Accessed September 1, 2021. https://www.mfat.govt.nz/en/trade/mfat-market-reports/marketreports- global/mfat-monitoring-international-supply-chains/
  7. Miller, Corazon. “Businesses Struggling to Cope amid Dramatic Freight Cost Increase in and out of NZ.” TVNZ, June 16, 2021. Accessed September 1, 2021. https://www.tvnz.co.nz/one-news/new-zealand/businesses-struggling-cope-amid-dramatic-freight-cost-increase-in-and-nz
  8. Rider Levett Bucknall. International RLB Report, Construction Market Intelligence. Second Quarter 2021: 8. Accessed September 30, 2021. https://s31756.pcdn.co/europe/wp-content/uploads/sites/6/2021/02/RLB-International-Report-Q2-2020.pdf
  9. Anderson, Ian. “Coronavirus: Leap in Demand for Home Meal Delivery Services in New Zealand.” Stuff, March 23, 2020. Accessed August 28, 2021. Read
  10. Gamio, L, and Goodman, P. “How the Supply Chain Crisis Unfolded.” The New York Times, December 5, 2021. Read
  11. New Zealand Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. Infrastructure Quarterly – January 2022. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/projects/infrastructure-quarterly/quarter-one-2022/
  12. Statistics New Zealand. “International Travel and Migration Patterns Shift Due to COVID-19 Pandemic.” 2020. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.stats.govt.nz/news/international-travel-and-migration-patterns-shift-due-to-covid-19-pandemic
  13. The report reveals 17 district health boards completed approximately 3,300 telehealth consultations per week in a pre-Covid-19 month from November 2019 – January 2020, a figure which drastically increased in April to 34,500 per week. NZ Telehealth Forum & Resource Centre. “A HiNZ Special Report into Telehealth at New Zealand DHBs and the Impact of COVID-19.” 2020. Accessed September 1, 2021. https://www.telehealth.org.nz/news/a-hinz-special-report-into-telehealth- at-new-zealand-dhbs-and-the-impact-of-covid-19/
  14. Wharton University of Pennsylvania. “The Post-COVID-19 World Will Be Less Global and Less Urban.” May 13, 2020. Accessed September 1, 2021. https://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/post-covid-19-world-will-less-global-less-urban/
  15. Glaeser, E. and Cutler, D. Survival of the City: Living and Thriving in an Age of Isolation. Penguin Press, 2021.
  16. New Zealand Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. He Tūāpapa ki te Ora Infrastructure for a Better Future. Wellington, May 2021.
  17. New Zealand Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. “Watch the Infrastructure 2021: Looking Ahead Symposium”. Accessed February 21, 2022. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/news/commission- news/watch-the-infrastructure-2021-looking-ahead-symposium/
  18. Sense Partners. New Zealand’s Infrastructure Challenge: Quantifying the Gap and Path to Close it. A Report for the New Zealand Infrastructure Commission/Te Waihanga. 2021. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Infrastructure-Challenge-Report.pdf
  19. Statistics New Zealand. “National Population Projections, by Age and Sex, 2020 (base)- 2073.” 2020. Accessed August 16, 2021. http://nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz/wbos/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=TABLECODE7585. Policy can have an impact on population growth rates, for instance by influencing migration inflows, and this may also be a way to manage infrastructure challenges arising from growth. The Productivity Commission is currently undertaking an inquiry into immigration settings that considers this issue. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/inquiries/immigration-settings/
  20. Productivity Commission. Technological Change and the Future of Work: Final Report. Wellington, New Zealand: Productivity Commission, 2020. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/inquiries/technology-and-the-future-of-work/
  21. Radio New Zealand News. “Alpine Fault: Probability of Damaging Quake Higher than Previously Thought.” April 20, 2021. Accessed July 19, 2021. https://www.rnz.co.nz/news/national/440834/alpine-fault-probability-of-damaging-quake-higher-than-previously-thought
  22. Transpower. The Role of Peak Pricing for Transmission. November 2, 2018. https://www.transpower.co.nz/sites/default/files/plain-page/attachments/Transpower_The_Role_ of_Peak_Pricing_for_Transmission_2Nov2018.pdf
  23. New Zealand Government. Economic Plan - For a Productive, Sustainable and Inclusive Economy. Wellington, 2019. Accessed July 22, 2021. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2019-09/Economic%20Plan.pdf
  24. Water Industry Commission for Scotland. Supporting Materials Part 3: Costs and Benefits of Reform. 2021. https://www.dia.govt.nz/diawebsite.nsf/Files/Three-waters-reform-programme/$file/wics-supporting-material-3-costs-and-benefits-of-reform.pdf
  25. Te Tari Taiwhenua/Department of Internal Affairs. “Balance Sheet: Public Equity and Total Assets.” Accessed February 24, 2022. https://www.localcouncils.govt.nz/lgip.nsf/wpg_URL/Profiles-Local-Government-Statistical-Overview-Balance-Sheet
  26. For instance, the assets underpinning the Māori economy are estimated at $69 billion and are weighted toward natural resource-based industries that benefit from well-functioning infrastructure services. See BERL and Reserve Bank of New Zealand. Te Ōhanga Māori 2018: The Māori Economy 2018. New Zealand. January 28, 2021. https://berl.co.nz/sites/default/files/2021-01/Te%20%C5%8Changa%20M%C4%81ori%202018.pdf
  27. Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment. “Māori in the Labour Market – June 2021 Quarter (unadjusted).” Wellington, New Zealand. Accessed July 14, 2021. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/dmsdocument/16892-maori-in-the-labour-market-june-2021-quarter-unadjusted
  28. Waka Kotahi/New Zealand Transport Agency. Te Ara Kotahi – Our Māori Strategy. August 2020. Accessed June 24, 2021. https://www.nzta.govt.nz/assets/About-us/docs/te-ara-kotahi-our-maori-strategy-august-2020.pdf
  29. Te Arawhiti. “Building Closer Partnerships with Māori.” Accessed February 24, 2022. https://www.tearawhiti.govt.nz/assets/Tools-and-Resources/Building-closer-partnerships-with-Maori-Principles.pdf
  30. Te Arawhiti. “Public Sector Capability.” Accessed January 29, 2022. https://www.tearawhiti.govt.nz/tools-and-resources/public-sector-maori-crown-relations-capability/
  1. Including opportunities to use existing preferential procurement opportunities for Māori suppliers to deepen workforce skills and training. New Zealand Government Procurement. “Supplier Diversity to Increase through New Procurement Targets for Māori Businesses.” December 17, 2020. Accessed June 22, 2021. https://www.procurement.govt.nz/about-us/news/supplierdiversity-to-increase-through-new-procurement-targets-for-Māori-businesses/
  2. For instance, developing the potential of Māori land where approximately one-third has the potential for increased utility through infrastructure development. Office of the Ministry for Business, Innovation & Employment - Minister for Regional Economic Development. “Provincial Growth Fund: Unlocking Underutilised Whenua Māori.” 2019. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/dmsdocument/11501-provincial-growth-fund-unlocking-underutilised-whenua-Māori-pdf. Te Puni Kōkiri – Ministry of Māori Development. “Owners’ Aspirations Regarding the Utilisation of Māori Land.” 2011. Accessed August 18, 2021. https://www.tpk.govt.nz/en/a-matou-mohiotanga/land/owners-aspirations-regarding-the-utilisation-of-ma.
  3. Direct communications with project team and Diversity Works NZ. “Te Ahu a Turanga: Manawatū TararuaHighway Alliance. Mārauranga Māori Award: Small-Medium Organisation Winner.” 2021. Accessed January 31, 2022. https://diversityworksnz.org.nz/case-studies/2021-diversity-awardsnz/m%C4%81tauranga-m%C4%81ori-te-ahu-a-turanga-manawat%C5%AB-tararua-highway-alliance/
  4. Statistics New Zealand. “National Population Projections, by Age and Sex, 2020 (base)-2073 (database).” 2020. Accessed July 14, 2021. http://nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz/wbos/Index.aspx?Data-SetCode=TABLECODE7585
  5. Statistics New Zealand. “Subnational Population Estimates.” October 22, 2020. Accessed July 14, 2021. https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/subnational-population-estimates- at-30-june-2020
  6. Statistics, N. Z. 2021. “National Population Projections, by Age and Sex, 2020 (base)- 2073 (database).” 2020. Accessed July 14, 2021. http://nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz/wbos/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=TABLECODE7585
  7. This figure refers to the medium projection for population growth in five urban councils (Auckland, Hamilton City, Tauranga City, Wellington City, and Christchurch City) calculated from subnational population projections, compared with the land area of those councils calculated from geographic area files. Statistics New Zealand. “Subnational Population Projections, by Age and Sex, 2018 (base)- 2048.” 2021. Accessed September 21, 2021. http://nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz/wbos/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=TABLECODE7988. Statistics New Zealand. 2018. “Geographic Areas File 2018.” Accessed September 21, 2021. https://datafinder.stats.govt.nz/table/104680-geographic-areas-file-2018/
  8. Spoonley, Paul. The New New Zealand: Facing Demographic Disruption. Massey University Press, 2020, 136.
  9. According to Statistics NZ figures, 24% of people 65 or over have earned income and they make up 7% of all earners. By 2073, the proportion of people with earned income can be expected to drop from 56% to 53% of the population.
  10. Statistics New Zealand. “New Zealand’s Population Reflects Growing Diversity.” 2019. Accessed September 1, 2021. https://www.stats.govt.nz/news/new-zealands-population-reflects-growing-diversity
  11. Statistics New Zealand. “New Zealand’s Population Reflects Growing Diversity.” 2019. Accessed September 1, 2021. https://www.stats.govt.nz/news/new-zealands-population-reflects-growing-diversity
  12. Statistics New Zealand. “Subnational Ethnic Population Projections: 2013 (base)–2038 Update.” 2017. Accessed September 1, 2021. https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/subnational-ethnic-population-projections-2013base2038-update
  13. Ministry for the Environment. National Climate Change Risk Assessment for New Zealand. 2020, 133. Accessed September 1, 2021. Read
  14. Schooling, Jennifer, Burgess, Gemma, and Enzer, Mark. Flourishing Systems - Re-Envisioning Infrastructure as a Platform for Human Flourishing. United Kingdom: Centre for Digital Built Britain and Centre for Smart Infrastructure & Construction, 6. 2020. https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.52270
  15. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2021. “Summary for Policymakers.” In Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, A. Pirani, S. L. Connors, C. Pean, S. Berger, N. Caud, et al., eds. Cambridge University Press (in press), 41. Read
  16. Climate Change Commission - He Pou a Rangi. Climate Change Commission 2021 Draft Advice for Consultation. Wellington, New Zealand, 2021: 10. Accessed June 30, 2021. https://ccc-production-media.s3.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/public/evidence/advice-report-DRAFT-1ST-FEB/ADVICE/CCC-ADVICE-TO-GOVT-31-JAN-2021-pdf.pdf
  17. Climate Change Commission - He Pou a Rangi. Inaia Tonu Nei: A Low-emissions Future for Aotearoa. May 31, 2021. Wellington, New Zealand: 88. Accessed February 04, 2022. https://ccc-production-media.s3.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/public/Inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissionsfuture-for-Aotearoa/Inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-future-for-Aotearoa.pdf
  18. Climate Change Commission - He Pou a Rangi. “Modelling and Data.” Demonstration Path tab, rows 14-22”. Accessed July 29, 2021. https://www.climatecommission.govt.nz/our-work/advice- to-government-topic/inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-future-for-aotearoa/modelling/
  19. Climate Change Commission - He Pou a Rangi. Inaia Tonu Nei: A Low-Emissions Future for Aotearoa. Wellington, New Zealand. May 31, 2021. Accessed February 04, 2022. https://ccc-production-media.s3.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/public/Inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-futurefor-Aotearoa/Inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-future-for-Aotearoa.pdf
  20. Climate Change Commission - He Pou a Rangi. “Modelling and Data. Demonstration Path tab, BN186.” Accessed July 29, 2021. https://www.climatecommission.govt.nz/our-work/advice-to-government- topic/inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-future-for-aotearoa/modelling/
  21. Biomass energy can be in the form of solids (such as wood chips, wood pellets or organic waste), liquids (such as biodiesel from tallow or used cooking oil) or gas (such as those produced in wastewater or sewage treatment plants). Source: Bioenergy Association of New Zealand. “About Bioenergy.” 2021. Accessed August 2, 2021. https://www.bioenergy.org.nz/about-bioenergy
  22. Firstgas Group. Bringing Zero Carbon Gas to Aotearoa: Hydrogen Feasibility Study - Summary Report. March 2021. https://firstgas.co.nz/wp-content/uploads/Firstgas-Group_Hydrogen-Feasibility-Study_web_pages.pdf
  23. Climate Change Commission - He Pou a Rangi. “Modelling and Data. Demonstration Path tab, row 426”. Accessed July 29, 2021. https://www.climatecommission.govt.nz/our-work/advice-to-government- topic/inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-future-for-aotearoa/modelling/
  24. Wide-ranging changes are projected for energy and electricity use over the next 30 years. Further discussion of these trends is provided in: New Zealand Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. Sector State of Play: Energy. 2021. https://infracom.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Energy-Sector-State-of-Play-Discussion-Document-February-2021.pdf. Climate Change Commission – He Pou a Rangi. “2021 Supporting Evidence: Chapter 11: Where Are We Currently Heading?” May 31, 2021. https://ccc-production-media.s3.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/public/Evidence-21/Evidence-CH-11-where-are-we-currently-heading.pdf. Transpower New Zealand Limited. Whakamana I Te Mauri Hiko - Empowering Our Energy Future. March 2020. Accessed August 24, 2021. Read more.
  25. Climate Change Commission - He Pou a Rangi. “Modelling and Data. Demonstration Path tab, rows 190-202.” Accessed July 29, 2021. https://www.climatecommission.govt.nz/our-work/advice- to-government-topic/inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-future-for-aotearoa/modelling/.
  26. Climate Change Commission – He Pou a Rangi. “2021 Supporting Evidence: Chapter 11: Where Are We Currently Heading.” May 31, 2021: 31. https://ccc-production-media.s3.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/public/Evidence-21/Evidence-CH-11-where-are-we-currently-heading.pdf
  27. Transpower New Zealand Limited. Whakamana I Te Mauri Hiko - Empowering Our Energy Future. March 2020, 24. Accessed July 17, 2021. Read
  1. Transpower New Zealand Limited. Te Mauri Hiko - Energy Futures. Transpower White Paper, 2018. Accessed March 2020. Read
  2. On the other hand, rapid technology change is driving in the opposite direction, making local electricity generation and storage cheaper, which could result in a larger share of electricity coming from local sources. This could reduce our reliance on the national grid.
  3. Climate Change Commission – He Pou a Rangi. Modelling and Data. Wellington, New Zealand. Accessed July 29, 2021. https://www.climatecommission.govt.nz/our-work/advice-to-government- topic/inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-future-for-aotearoa/modelling/
  4. Climate Change Commission – He Pou a Rangi. Inaia Tonu Nei: A Low-Emissions Future for Aotearoa. Wellington, New Zealand, May 31, 2021: 120. https://www.climatecommission.govt.nz/.
  5. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. Discussion Document: Accelerating Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. Wellington, New Zealand. December 2019. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/assets/discussion-document-accelerating-renewable-energy-and-energy-efficiency.pdf
  6. Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources. Offshore Clean Energy Infrastructure Regulatory Framework: Discussion Paper. Australian Government, January 2020. Read
  7. Transpower New Zealand Limited. “MBIE Accelerating Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Consultation Submission.” February 28, 2020: 22. Accessed August 14, 2021. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/dmsdocument/12112-transpower-accelerating-renewable-energy-and-energy-efficiency-submission-pdf
  8. New Zealand Productivity Commission. Low-Emissions Economy: Final Report. Wellington, New Zealand, 2018. Read. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. Discussion Document: Accelerating Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency. Wellington, New Zealand, December 2019. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/dmsdocument/10349-discussion-document-accelerating-renewable-energyand-energy-efficiency. Innovation and Participation Advisory Group. “Submission on Accelerating Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency.” Wellington, New Zealand, February 28, 2020. Accessed February 24, 2022. https://www.ea.govt.nz/assets/dms-assets/26/26595IPAG-MBIE-submission-on-Accelerating-renewable-energy-and-energy-efficiency.pdf
  9. Transpower New Zealand Limited. Whakamana I Te Mauri Hiko - Empowering Our Energy Future. March 2020: 33 & 35. Accessed June 20, 2021. Read
  10. Climate Change Commission – He Pou a Rangi. “2021 Supporting Evidence: Chapter 11: Where Are We Currently Heading?” May 31, 2021. Accessed June 29, 2021. https://ccc-production-media.s3.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/public/Evidence-21/Evidence-CH-11-where-are-we-currentlyheading.pdf
  11. Transpower New Zealand Limited. Whakamana I Te Mauri Hiko - Empowering Our Energy Future. March 2020: 24. Accessed May 30, 2021. Read
  12. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. “Table 2, Data Tables for Electricity.” Accessed February 4, 2022. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/building-and-energy/energy-and-natural-resources/energy-statistics-and-modelling/energy-statistics/electricity-statistics/. On a quarterly basis, levels over the last five years ranged from 74 – 88%. The five-year weighted average is 82.4%, calculated from quarterly data for December 2016 -September 2021, Table 1.
  13. Meridian. “Submission on He Tūāpapa Ki Te Ora, Infrastructure for a Better Future Draft Infrastructure Strategy Consultation Document". July 2, 2021.
  14. Lodestone Energy. “Lodestone Energy: Transforming New Zealand’s Electricity Sector with the Power of the Sun.” Accessed August 31, 2021. https://lodestoneenergy.co.nz/
  15. Far North Solar Farm. “Building New Zealand’s Solar Future.” Accessed September 12, 2021. https://fnsf.co.nz/
  1. Hall, Max. 2021. “English Solar Developers Expand into Friendly New Zealand.” PV Magazine, September 6, 2021. Accessed on February 24, 2022. https://www.pv-magazine-australia.com/2021/09/06/english-solar-developers-expand-into-friendly-new-zealand/
  2. New Zealand Herald. “Solar Farm to Be Built at Christchurch Airport.” December 1, 2021. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/solar-farm-to-be-built-at-christchurch-airport/X5FMOSKXGGCQVZIQ4FIHTFRICU/
  3. The expressions of interest in offshore windfarms were made in meetings with Te Waihanga and are confidential.
  4. Climate Change Commission - He Pou a Rangi. “Modelling and Data. Demonstration Path tab, cells AJ211-213 for 2020 data and BN211-213 for 2050 data.” Accessed July 29, 2021. https://www.climatecommission.govt.nz/our-work/advice-to-government-topic/inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissionsfuture-for-aotearoa/modelling/
  5. The 58TWh and 89TWh figures are calculations by Te Waihanga based on assessments prepared for MBIE of commercially viable wind, solar and geothermal resources. The lower figure excludes generation from offshore wind resources which are currently two times more expensive to develop than onshore wind. However, offshore costs are projected to fall rapidly over the next 30 years. Further details will be provided in a technical paper on the Te Waihanga website.
  6. There is no official definition of a hyperscale data centre. VERTIV states that a hyperscale data centre is one that exceeds 5,000 servers and 10,000 square feet. See VERTIV. “What Is a Hyperscale Data Center?” Accessed August 21, 2021. https://www.vertiv.com/en-asia/about/newsand- insights/articles/educational-articles/what-is-a-hyperscale-data-center/
  7. Contact Energy, Meridian Energy, and McKinsey & Co, in Southern Green Hydrogen. The New Zealand Hydrogen Opportunity. June 9, 2021. Accessed July 22, 2021. https://www.datocms-assets.com/49051/1626295071-the-nz-hydrogen-opportunity.pdf
  8. The gap is between New Zealand’s Nationally Determined Contribution and actual emissions. See Climate Change Commission - He Pou a Rangi. Inaia Tonu Nei: A Low-Emissions Future for Aotearoa. Wellington, New Zealand, May 31, 2021: 365. Accessed July 29, 2021. https://ccc-production-media.s3.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/public/Inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-futurefor-Aotearoa/Inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-future-for-Aotearoa.pdf
  9. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. “Data tables for electricity. Table 2, cell O51.” Accessed September 21, 2021. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/building-and-energy/energy-and-natural- resources/energy-statistics-and-modelling/energy-statistics/electricity-statistics/
  10. Hancock, E., “Australia Gives New Priority Status to AU$22bn Renewable Energy Export Project.” PV Tech, March 1, 2021. Accessed May 22, 2021. https://www.pv-tech.org/australia-gives-new-priority-status-to-au22bn-renewable-energy-export-project/
  11. World Energy Council. “Energy Trilemma Index.” Accessed August 2020. https://trilemma.worldenergy.org/
  12. Climate Change Commission - He Pou a Rangi. “Inaia Tonu Nei: “A Low-Emissions Future for Aotearoa. Chapter 8: Demonstrating Emissions Budgets Can Be Fair, Inclusive and Equitable.” Wellington, New Zealand, May 31, 2021: 163-172. Accessed July 29, 2021. https://ccc-production-media.s3.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/public/Inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-future-for-Aotearoa/Chapter-8-inaia-tonu-nei.pdf
  13. Climate Change Commission – He Pou a Rangi. “Modelling and Data. Demonstration Path tab, cells AJ551 and BN551.” Accessed July 29, 2021. https://www.climatecommission.govt.nz/ourwork/advice-to-government-topic/inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-future-for-aotearoa/modelling/
  14. Climate Change Commission - He Pou a Rangi. “Modelling and Data. Demonstration Path tab, cells AJ531 and BN531.” Accessed July 29, 2021. https://www.climatecommission.govt.nz/ourwork/advice-to-government-topic/inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-future-for-aotearoa/modelling/
  15. On the flipside, the Climate Change Commission notes at p169 in its May 2021 report, that lower-income households, some Māori and Pasifika households, elderly and people with disabilities will benefit more from making energy efficiency improvements. These groups are more likely to live in older, poorly insulated homes, and would therefore, benefit more from cost savings or improved health from being able to use savings for additional heating.
  1. Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment. “Support for Energy Education in Communities Programme.” Accessed August 21, 2021. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/building-and-energy/energy-and-natural-resources/energy-hardship/support-for-energy-education-in-communities-programme/
  2. Ministry of Business Innovation and Employment. “Māori and Public Housing Renewable Energy Fund.” Accessed August 21, 2021. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/building-and-energy/energy-and-natural- resources/low-emissions-economy/energy-efficiency-in-new-zealand/Māori-and-public-housing- renewable-energy-fund/
  3. Dixit, Avinashi K. and Robert S. Pindyck. Investment Under Uncertainty. Princeton, Princeton University Press, 2014: 3 & 8.
  4. This refers to the lock-in of operational emissions, rather than embedded emissions. For example, building a windfarm or a hydro generation plant will lock-in embedded emissions, but both have zero operational emissions. When developing the business case for deciding whether to build them, it is appropriate to use current ETS prices to value the embedded emissions that would be attributable to New Zealand. As there are no operational emissions, a long-term carbon cost value does not need to be considered.
  5. Jarden Commtrade. Accessed on 22 February 2022. https://www.commtrade.co.nz/
  6. Te Tai Ōhanga – The Treasury. “CBAx Tool User Guidance – Guide for Departments and Agencies Using Treasury’s CBAx Tool for Cost Benefit Analysis.” Wellington, New Zealand. Accessed December 2020. https://www.treasury.govt.nz/information-and-services/state-sector-leadership/investment-management/plan-investment-choices/cost-benefit-analysis-including-public-sectordiscount-rates/treasurys-cbax-tool
  7. Climate Change Commission – He Pou a Rangi. Inaia Tonu Nei: A Low-Emissions Future for Aotearoa. Wellington, New Zealand, May 31, 2021: 241. Accessed August 2, 2021. https://www.climatecommission.govt.nz/
  8. Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy – United Kingdom. “Valuation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: For Policy Appraisal and Evaluation.” United Kingdom, September 2, 2021. Accessed September 8, 2021. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/valuing-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-policy-appraisal/valuation-of-greenhouse-gas-emissions-for-policy-appraisal-and-evaluation
  9. Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy, United Kingdom, “Policy Paper: Valuation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions.” September 2, 2021. Accessed September 8, 2021. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/valuing-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-policyappraisal/valuation-of-greenhouse-gas-emissions-for-policy-appraisal-and-evaluation#annex-1-carbon-values-in-2020-prices-per-tonne-of-co2
  10. Based on an exchange rate of £1:$1.94, on 8 September 2021. Xe.com. “EX Currency Converter – Live Rates”. 2021. Accessed September 8, 2021. https://www.xe.com/currencyconverter/convert/?Amount=1&From=GBP&To=NZD
  11. Callaghan Innovation. “Customer Stories: Cementing Eco-Friendly Building.” Accessed February 14, 2022. https://www.callaghaninnovation.govt.nz/customer-stories/cementing-eco-friendly-building. Te Waihanga. Infrastructure Resources Study. November 2021. Accessed February 14, 2022. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/assets/Infrastructure-Resources-Study-11-Nov-21.pdf
  12. Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment. Whole-of-Life Embodied Carbon Emissions Reduction Framework: Building for Climate Change. August 2020. Accessed February 14, 2022. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/dmsdocument/11794-whole-of-life-embodied-carbon-emissions-reduction-framework
  13. Auckland Light Rail: Independent Chair’s Report. City Centre to Māngere Rapid Transit. October 2021. https://www.lightrail.co.nz/media/yodpjmkd/alr-ibc-summary-independent-chairs-report.pdf
  14. For full details refer to Section 10 “Want to know more.”
  1. ‘Main cities’ are defined using territorial authority boundaries, including satellite suburbs and towns that are part of the same urban labour market: Auckland (Auckland Council), Wellington urban area (Wellington City, Lower Hutt City, Upper Hutt City, Porirua City, Kapiti Coast District), Christchurch urban area (Christchurch City, Selwyn District, Waimakariri District), Hamilton urban area (Hamilton City, Waikato District, Waipa District), and Tauranga urban area (Tauranga City, Western Bay of Plenty District). This definition includes some rural settlements and excludes some urban places, but it was used to ensure consistency with population projections, which are not yet available below the territorial authority level. Statistics New Zealand. “Subnational population estimates (TA, SA2), by age and sex, at 30 June 1996 – 2020 (2020 boundaries).” Accessed September 2, 2021. http://nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz/wbos/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=TABLECODE7980
  2. Sense Partners. New Zealand’s Infrastructure Challenge: Quantifying the Gap and Path to Close It. A report for the NZ Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga, 2021. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Infrastructure-Challenge-Report.pdf
  3. New Zealand Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. Sector State of Play: Transport. Accessed August 16, 2021. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/strategy/state-of-plays/transport/
  4. This figure sums together arrivals and departures. Statistics New Zealand. “International Travel: May 2021.” Accessed August 23, 2021. https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/international-travel-may-2021
  5. Hutching, Gerard. “New Zealand’s Primary Sector Exports Reach a Record $46.4 Billion.” Stuff, September 16, 2019. Accessed August 31, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/business/farming/115831996/new-zealands-primary-sector-exports-reach-a-record-464-billion
  6. Statistics New Zealand. “Estimated Resident Population (2018-Base): At 30 June 2018.” Accessed January 28, 2021. https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/estimated-resident-population-2018-base-at-30-june-2018
  7. Climate Change Commission – He Pou a Rangi. Inaia Tonu Nei: A Low-Emissions Future for Aotearoa. Wellington, New Zealand, May 31, 2021: 157 para108,109; 331 para 37. 241. Accessed August 2, 2021. https://www.climatecommission.govt.nz/
  8. Te Puni Kōkiri – Ministry of Māori Development. Te Ōhanga Māori - Māori Economy Report 2013. Wellington, New Zealand. Accessed August 23, 2021. https://www.tpk.govt.nz/en/a-matou-mohiotanga/business-and-economics/Māori-economy-report-2013
  9. For instance, Sounds Air has placed orders for three twenty-seat, electric ES-19 passenger aircraft, with a scheduled delivery of 2026. Bywater, Thomas. “Sounds Air’s Electric Aircraft Locks in Wellington Airport for Zero-Emission Route.” The New Zealand Herald, August 17, 2021. Accessed August 31, 2021. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/travel/sounds-airs-electric-aircraft-locks-in-wellington-airport-for-zero-emission-route/JQOB3LZKFVB27ON2NWIRDH5TF4/
  10. WSDOT Aviation Division. Washington Electric Aircraft Feasibility Study. November 2020. https://wsdot.wa.gov/sites/default/files/2021-11/Electric-Aircraft-Feasibility-Study-Nov2020.pdf
  11. Estimates range from 20,000 people to 100,000 people: New Zealand Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. Sector State of Play: Water. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/strategy/state-of-plays/water/
  12. Institute of Environmental Science and Research. Drinking-Water Register for New Zealand – Register of Suppliers. March 2021. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.taumataarowai.govt.nz/for-communities/public-register/
  13. Sivignon Cherie. “Concerns flow over Water Services Bill potential effects for rural supplies.” Stuff, March 5, 2021. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/health/124419270/concerns-flow-over-water-services-bill-potential-effects-for-rural-supplies
  14. The New Zealand Government. Releases. “Rural supply required to continue after 2013.” Wellington, New Zealand, May 10, 2021. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/rural-power-supply-required-continue-after-2013
  15. New Zealand Productivity Commission. Local Government Funding and Financing. Wellington, New Zealand, November 2019. See Findings F4.4 and F4.5 and Recommendation R6.1: Read
  1. Banchik, Leonardo, Riedel Robin, Kloss Benedikt. “Right in your backyard: Regional airports are an accessible and underused resource for future air mobility.“ McKinsey & Company (blog). May 26, 2021. https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/aerospace-and-defense/our-insights/future-air-mobility-blog/right-in-your-backyard-regional-airports-are-an-accessible-and-underusedresource-for-future-air-mobility
  2. Narishkin, Abby, Emmanuel Ocbazghi, and Steve Cameron. 2021. “Why Electric Planes Haven’t Taken off Yet.” Business Insider, April 9, 2021. https://www.businessinsider.com/electric-planes-future-of-aviation-problems-regulations-2020-3
  3. For instance, Sounds Air has placed orders for three twenty-seat, electric ES-19 passenger aircraft, with a scheduled delivery of 2026: Bywater, Thomas. 2021. “Sounds Air’s Electric Aircraft Locks in Wellington Airport for Zero- Emission Route.” The New Zealand Herald, August 17, 2021. Accessed August 21, 2021. https://www.nzherald.co.nz/travel/sounds-airs-electric-aircraft-locks-in-wellington-airport-for-zeroemission- route/JQOB3LZKFVB27ON2NWIRDH5TF4/
  4. WSDOT Aviation Division. “Washington Electric Aircraft Feasibility Study.” November 2020. https://wsdot.wa.gov/sites/default/files/2021-11/WSDOT-Electric-Aircraft-Feasibility-Study.pdf
  5. Spoonley, Paul. The New New Zealand: Facing Demographic Disruption. 2020: 136. Massey University Press.
  6. Statistics New Zealand, as reported in Te Waihanga. He Tūāpapa ki te Ora Infrastructure for a Better Future. May 2021: 65. https://infracom.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Infrastructure-Strategy-Consultation-Document-May-2021.pdf
  7. 1 News. “BNZ to Close down 38 Branches around the Country within a Year.” TVNZ, November 19, 2020. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.tvnz.co.nz/one-news/new-zealand/bnz-closedown-38-branches-around-country-within-year
  8. Statistics New Zealand. “How Accurate Are Population Estimates and Projections? An Evaluation of Statistics New Zealand Population Estimates and Projections, 1996 – 2013.” Accessed April 8, 2021. https://www.stats.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Retirement-of-archive-website-project-files/Methods/How-accurate-are-population-estimates-and-projections/how-accurate-pop-estimates-projections-1996-2013-2.pdf
  9. Castalia Strategic Advisors Mobilising the Regions: The Role of Transport Infrastructure in Achieving Economic Success across All of New Zealand. Wellington, Local Government New Zealand, 2015: 12 https://www.lgnz.co.nz/assets/Uploads/425e92f095/Mobilising-the-regionspaper-August-2015.pdf. Deloitte. “Developing the freight Sector elements – Final Report. Wellington, New Zealand, September 2020: 42. https://infracom.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Freight-Sector-Review.pdf
  10. Cascetta, Ennio, Armando Carteni, Ilaria Henke, and Francesca Pagliara. “Economic Growth, Transport Accessibility and Regional Equity Impacts of High-Speed Railways in Italy: Ten Years Ex post Evaluation and Future Perspectives.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice. 2020: 412-428.
  11. van Zon, Adriaan, and Evans Mupela. “Connectivity and Economic Growth.” Macroeconomic Dynamics 20, no. 8, 2016, 2148-2172.
  12. Te Manatū Waka - Ministry of Transport. “The New Zealand Rail Plan: Freight Model.” April 2021: 25. https://www.transport.govt.nz//assets/Uploads/Report/The-New-Zealand-Rail-Plan.pdf
  13. Te Manatū Waka – Ministry of Transport. Transport Outlook Future Overview – A summary of Transport Futures for New Zealand.” November 2017. Wellington, New Zealand. Read
  14. Rail freight services provided by KiwiRail, operating with commercial incentives as a State-Owned Enterprise.
  15. Exceptions include Auckland International Airport Limited and listed port companies.
  16. New Zealand Productivity Commission. International Freight Transport Services Inquiry.” April 2012. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/assets/Documents/f53fe759db/Final-report-v7.pdf. A list of recommendations related to governance improvements is provided on page 286.
  17. Deloitte. Developing the Freight Sector Elements: Final Report. September 2020: 42. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Freight-Sector-Review.pdf
  1. New Zealand Productivity Commission. International Freight transport Services Inquiry. April 2012: 205. Read
  2. Edgecliffe-Johnson, Andrew. 2021. “Supply Chains: Companies Shift from ‘Just in Time’ to ‘Just in Case.’” Financial Times, December 20, 2021. Accessed February 22, 2022. https://www.ft.com/ content/8a7cdc0d-99aa-4ef6-ba9a-fd1a1180dc82
  3. Te Tai Ōhanga: The Treasury. “WEU Special Topic - The Economic Impacts of Global Supply Chain Disruption.” Accessed February 22, 2022. https://www.treasury.govt.nz/publications/ research-and-commentary/rangitaki-blog/weu-special-topic-economic-impacts-global-supply- chain-disruption
  4. Deloitte. “Developing the Freight Sector Elements – Final Report.” September 2020: 8. https:// www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Freight-Sector-Review.pdf
  5. New Zealand Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. Sector State of Play: Transport. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/strategy/state-of-plays/transport/
  6. New Zealand Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. Sector State of Play: Transport. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/strategy/state-of-plays/transport/
  7. Te Manatū Waka – Ministry of Transport. The New Zealand Rail Plan. April 2021. https://www. transport.govt.nz/area-of-interest/infrastructure-and-investment/the-new-zealand-rail-plan/
  8. Waka Kotahi – Ministry of Transport. Arataki Version 2. Wellington New Zealand. Accessed August 23, 2021. https://www.nzta.govt.nz/planning-and-investment/planning/arataki/arataki-version-2/
  9. Auckland Transport. Auckland Freight Plan – Summary Report. Auckland New Zealand, September 2020. https://at.govt.nz/media/1983982/auckland-freight-plan.pdf
  10. Urban Form and Transport Initiative. Urban Form and Transport Initiative (UFTI) Final Report. July 2020. https://ufti.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/22527_UFTI-Final-Report.pdf
  11. Regional spatial planning is a core part of the proposed resource management reforms and is intended to be enabled and mandated by a new Strategic Planning Act. Resource Management Review Panel, New Directions for Resource Management in New Zealand. Ministry for the Environment. 2020. rm-panel-review-report-web.pdf (environment.govt.nz)
  12. Infrastructure New Zealand. Building Regions. 2019. https://infrastructure.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Report-A-vision-for-local-government-planning-law-and-funding-reform.pdf
  13. While a threefold increase in population sounds extreme, Auckland’s urban population grew from 470,000 people to 1,330,000 people between 1961 and 2013, a nearly threefold increase. Some smaller cities, such as Tauranga, grew at an even faster rate over the same time period. https://www.nzae.org.nz/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/John-Polkinghorne.pdf
  14. New Zealand Productivity Commission. Better Urban Planning. February 2017. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/inquiries/better-urban-planning/
  15. Pallares-Barbera, M., Badia, A. and Duch, J. “Cerda and Barcelona: The Need for a New City and Service Provision.” Urbani Izziv, 22(2), 2011:122-136. Roberts, D. “Barcelona’s Remarkable History of Rebirth and Transformation.’ Vox, April 8, 2019. https://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2019/4/8/18266760/barcelona-spain-urban-planning-history
  16. Danish Ministry of the Environment. The Finger Plan: A Strategy for the Development of the Greater Copenhagen Area. 2015. https://danishbusinessauthority.dk/sites/default/files/fpeng_ 31_13052015.pdf. Sorensen, E. and Torfing, J. “The Copenhagen Metropolitan ‘Finger Plan’: A Robust Urban Planning Success Based on Collaborative Governance”. In Great Policy Successes, Oxford University Press, 2019: 218-243.
  17. Angel, S. Planet of Cities Cambridge, MA: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2012: 360. Bertaud, A., Order Without Design: How Markets Shape Cities. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 2018.
  1. United Nations General Assembly. The Promotion, Protection and Enjoyment of Human Rights on the Internet. The Human Rights Council, 2016. Accessed February 22, 2022. Read
  2. New Zealand Telehealth. “A HiNZ Special Report into Telehealth at New Zealand DHBs and the Impact of COVID-19.” December 2020. Accessed September 1, 2021. https://www.telehealth.org.nz/news/a-hinz-special-report-into-telehealth-at-new-zealand-dhbs-and-the-impact-of-covid-19/
  3. KPMG. Agribusiness Agenda 2021: New Zealand, Our Consumers and Our 2040 Future. June 2021. Accessed August 19, 2021. https://assets.kpmg/content/dam/kpmg/nz/pdf/2021/06/agribusiness-agenda-report-2021.pdf
  4. New Zealand Infrastructure Commission – Te Waihanga. State of Play: Telecommunications. 36- 38. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/strategy/state-of-plays/telecommunications/
  5. Anthony, John. “Elon Musk’s Broadband Service Starlink Open for New Zealand Pre-Orders.” Stuff, 2021. Accessed February 19, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/business/industries/124302357/elon-musks-broadband-service-starlink-open-for-new-zealand-preorders
  6. Rural Connectivity Group. “The Rural Connectivity Group Liven Their 200th Site.” Accessed March 23, 2021. https://www.thercg.co.nz/rural-connectivity-group-liven-their-200th-site/
  7. United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. World Urbanization Prospects 2018. New York: United Nations. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://population.un.org/wup/DataQuery/
  8. Bouchet, Max; Liu Sifan, Parilla Joseph, and Kabbani Nader.“Global Metro Monitor 2018.” Brookings, 2018. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.brookings.edu/research/globalmetro-monitor-2018/
  9. Thorns, D. and Schrader, B. “City History and People - The Appeal of City Life.” In Te Ara - the Encyclopaedia of New Zealand. Accessed September 15, 2021. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/graph/23509/urban-growth. Story by David Thorns and Ben Schrader, published March 11, 2010.
  10. ‘Main cities’ are defined using territorial authority boundaries, including satellite suburbs and towns that are part of the same urban labour market: Auckland (Auckland Council), Wellington urban area (Wellington City, Lower Hutt City, Upper Hutt City, Porirua City, Kapiti Coast District), Christchurch urban area (Christchurch City, Selwyn District, Waimakariri District), Hamilton urban area (Hamilton City, Waikato District, Waipa District), and Tauranga urban area (Tauranga City, Western Bay of Plenty District). This definition includes some rural settlements and excludes some urban places, but it was used to ensure consistency with population projections, which are not yet available below the territorial authority level. Statistics New Zealand. “Subnational population estimates (TA, SA2), By Age and Sex, at 30 June 1996-2020 (2020 boundaries).” Accessed September 14, 2021. http://nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz/wbos/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=TABLECODE7980
  11. This figure refers to the medium projection for population growth in five urban councils (Auckland, Hamilton City, Tauranga City, Wellington City, and Christchurch City) calculated from subnational population projections, compared with the land area of those councils calculated from geographic area files. Statistics New Zealand. “Subnational Population Projections, By Age and Sex, 2018 (base)- 2048.” 2021. Accessed September 21, 2021. http://nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz/wbos/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=TABLECODE7988. Statistics New Zealand. “Geographic Areas File 2018.” 2018. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://datafinder.stats.govt.nz/table/104680-geographic-areas-file-2018/
  12. Glaeser, Edward. “Triumph of the City: How Urban Spaces Make Us Human. Pan Macmillan, 2011. Mazumdar, Soumya, et al. “The Built Environment and Social Capital: A Systematic Review.” Environment and Behavior 50.2 (2018): 119-158.
  13. Demographia & Urban Reform Institute & Frontier Centre for Public Policy. “ International Housing Affordability 2021 Edition.” February 2021. http://www.demographia.com/dhi.pdf
  1. Ministry of Housing and Urban Development and Ministry for the Environment, “Urban Development.” Accessed April 19, 2021, https://huddashboards.shinyapps.io/urban-development/
  2. Ministry of Social Development, “Household Incomes in New Zealand: Trends in Indicators of Inequality and Hardship 1982 to 2018,” November 6, 2019. https://www.msd.govt.nz/about-msdand-our-work/publications-resources/monitoring/household-incomes/household-incomes-1982-to-2018.html
  3. Statistics New Zealand. “Individual Home Ownership and Ethnic Group (Grouped Total Responses) by Age Group and Sex, for the Usually Resident Population Count Aged 15 Years and Over, 2006, 2013, and 2018 Censuses (RC, TA, SA2, DHB).” Accessed September 14, 2021. http://nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz/wbos/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=TABLECODE8383
  4. Statistics New Zealand. “Dwelling Dampness Indicator by Ethnic Group (Grouped Total Responses), Age Group and Sex, for People in Occupied Private Dwellings, 2018 Census (RC, TA, SA2, DHB).” Accessed September 16, 2021. http://nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz/wbos/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=TABLECODE8357
  5. Statistics New Zealand. “Almost 1 in 9 People Live in a Crowded House.” Accessed September 1, 2021. https://www.stats.govt.nz/news/almost-1-in-9-people-live-in-a-crowded-house
  6. New Zealand Productivity Commission. “Better Urban Planning: Final Report 2017.” https://www.productivity.govt.nz/assets/Documents/0a784a22e2/Final-report.pdf. Office of the Mayor of Auckland, Mayoral Housing Taskforce Report: Prepared for the Mayor of Auckland. Auckland: Office of the Mayor of Auckland, 2017. https://ourauckland.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/media/13136/auckland-mayor-housing-taskforce-report.pdf
  7. Ministry of Business, Innovation, and Employment and Ministry for the Environment. National Policy Statement on Urban Development Capacity: Price Efficiency Indicators Technical Report: Rural-Urban Differentials. 2017. Accessed 21 September 2021. https://www.hud.govt.nz/assets/Urban-Development/NPS-UDC/34f4e7cf0b/National-Policy-Statement-on-Urban-Development-Capacity-Price-efficiency-indicators-technical-report-Rural-urban-differentials.pdf
  8. Cooper, G. C. K., and K. Namit. “City with a Billion Dollar View.” New Zealand Economic Papers 55:1, 2021: 19-37. https://doi.org/10.1080/00779954.2018.1509110
  9. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research. “Benefits from Auckland Road Decongestion.” July 10, 2017. https://nzier.org.nz/static/media/filer_public/6f/df/6fdfdada-923e-4199-8da9-cc940ae25bc1/nzier_report_on_auckland_benefits_of_decongestion.pdf. Table 1 breaks down congestion costs between economic and social costs. Social costs are an estimate of lost personal time and stress from experiencing congestion.
  10. Waka Kotahi – New Zealand Transport Agency. Research Report 675 – The Relationship Between Transport and Mental Health in Aotearoa New Zealand. May 2021. https://www.nzta.govt.nz/resources/research/reports/675/
  11. For instance the Wellington Rail Station, like many older public transport stations, does not have a wheelchair ramp at the front. MacManus Joel. “Heritage NZ Opposed Design of Wheelchair Ramp at Wellington Railway Station.” Stuff, July 17, 2021. Accessed August 30, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/dominion-post/wellington/125768367/heritage-nz-opposed-design-of-wheelchair-ramp-at-wellington-railwaystation
  12. Marr, Cathy. Rangahaua Whanui National Theme G. Public Works Takings of Māori Land 1840 – 1981. Waitangi Tribunal, May 1997. https://www.Māorilandcourt.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Publications/wt-theme-g-public-works-takings-of-Māori-land.pdf
  13. Watercare. The History of Wastewater Treatment in Auckland, 1878 – 2005. Auckland, New Zealand. Read
  14. Dann, Christine. ‘Sewage, Water and Waste - Water Pollution’ in Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Accessed September 16, 2021. http://www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/photograph/24463/okahu-bay (Story by Christine Dann, published 11 March 2010.) 178. The Globalization and World Cities Research Network. “The World According to GaWC 2020.” https://www.lboro.ac.uk/gawc/world2020t.html
  1. Mare, David C. and Graham, Daniel J. “Agglomeration Elasticities in New Zealand” Motu Working Paper No. 09-06 (June 1, 2009). http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1433644 and https://ssrn.com/abstract=1272196 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1272196
  2. New Zealand Institute of Economic Research & New Zealand Treasury. Regional Government Expenditure – Estimates of Core Crown Spending by Region. April 2013. Read
  3. Nunns, Peter. “The Causes and Economic Consequences of Rising Regional Housing Prices in New Zealand.” New Zealand Economic Papers. 55, no. 1 (2021): 66-104. https://doi.org/10.1080/00779954.2020.1791939 or https://cdn.auckland.ac.nz/assets/business/about/our-research/research-institutes-and-centres/CARE/the-causes-and-economic-consequences-of-rising-regional-housing-prices-in-new-zealand.pdf
  4. Ministry of Transport. The Congestion Question: Main Findings. Wellington, New Zealand, July 2020. Read
  5. Statistics New Zealand’s latest subnational population projections suggest that territorial authorities covering our five largest cities and their satellite growth areas (Auckland, Waikato, Hamilton, Waipa, Tauranga, Western BOP, Wellington, Lower Hutt, Upper Hutt, Porirua, Kapiti Coast, Christchurch, Selwyn, Waimakariri) will grow from 3.1 million people (2018) to 4.2 million under the 2048 medium projection or 4.8 million under the 2048 high projection. Statistics New Zealand. “Subnational Population Projections, by Age and Sex, 2018 (base)- 2048.” http://nzdotstat.stats.govt.nz/wbos/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=TABLECODE7988
  6. Ellickson, Robert C. “The Law and Economics of Street Layouts: How a Grid Pattern Benefits a Downtown.” Ala. L. Rev. 64 (2012): 463. Angel Shlomo, “Planet of Cities,” Journal of Regional Science 54, no. 1 (January 2014): 161–62.
  7. Infrastructure corridor protection decisions should be based on the value of the option to build infrastructure at a later date. There is a case to protect corridors well in advance of construction, even if there is uncertainty about when or whether those corridors will be used, but this is not well recognised in current designation and funding policies. The option value generated by corridor protection can be assessed using tools like real options analysis. See Infrastructure Australia. Guide to Risk and Uncertainty Analysis: Technical Guide of the Assessment Framework, July 2021. Read
  8. New Zealand Productivity Commission. Better Urban Planning. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/inquiries/better-urban-planning/
  9. For instance, a process to reclassify Department of Conservation stewardship land has been initiated. Department of Conservation. “Government Speeds up Stewardship Land Reclassification.” Accessed on February 24, 2022. https://www.doc.govt.nz/news/mediareleases/2021-media-releases/government-speeds-up-stewardship-land-reclassification/
  10. Ministry of the Environment. National Policy Statement on Urban Development Capacity 2016 - Further Evaluation Report. https://environment.govt.nz/publications/proposed-national-policy-statement-on-urban-development-capacity-consultation-document/
  11. PwC NZ and Sense Partners. Cost Benefit Analysis of Proposed Medium Density Residential Standards, Wellington: Ministry for the Environment, January 28, 2022. Accessed on February 14, 2022. https://environment.govt.nz/publications/this-report-provides-a-cost-benefit-analysis-including-the-estimated-number-of-dwellings-enabled-by-medium-density-residential-standards-over-58-years-as-part-of-proposals-to-enable-more-housing-supply-in-our-main-urban-areas/
  12. This approach is used successfully by Japan, where residential and business zone rules are set by central government and applied by local governments. This is part of the reason why Tokyo has achieved much higher rates of housing growth, and more affordable housing prices, than other large cities in the developed world. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport – Japan. Urban Land Use Planning System in Japan.: City Planning Division - City and Regional Development Bureau. Tokyo, Japan, 2003. https://www.mlit.go.jp/en/ or https://www.mlit.go.jp/common/001050453.pdf. Greater London Authority. Housing Research Notes. Housing Research Note 3 – Housing in Four World Cities: London, New York, Paris and Tokyo. London: Greater London Authority, April 2019. Accessed, August 30, 2021. https://data.london.gov.uk/dataset/housing-research-notes
  1. In addition to coordination between adjacent councils, this includes coordination between regional councils and territorial authorities, as both have transport system responsibilities.
  2. Bartolini, D. Municipal Fragmentation and Economic Performance of OECD TL2 Regions. 2015. Accessed August 29, 2021 https://doi.org/10.1787/20737009. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/urban-rural-and-regional-development/mupublicsuppornicipal-fragmentation-and-economic-performance-of-oecd-tl2-regions_5jrxqs60st5h-en
  3. Te Waihanga replicated the OECD study’s OLS regression models using regional GDP data for 16 New Zealand regions over the 2000-2020 period. Council fragmentation was defined as the number of territorial authorities and regional councils per 100,000 population, in the starting year of each time period. Regions with unitary councils were counted as only having one council. Rural share was defined as the share of regional population in SA2s with a population density of less than 150 people per square kilometre in the starting year of each time period. Models also controlled for other determinants of economic growth (population density, starting GDP per capita levels and the agriculture share of output). This analysis found a statistically significant relationship between council fragmentation that is similar to the OECD study finding over the 2010-2020 period – i.e., council fragmentation is negatively correlated with growth in urbanised councils, but positively correlated in rural councils. Over the full period, a statistically significant relationship is not observed between council fragmentation, rural share and GDP growth, although the point estimates have the same sign as in the OECD study.
  4. Goodwin, P.B. “Empirical Evidence on Induced Traffic.” Transportation. 23 (1996): 35–54 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00166218. Duranton, Gilles, and Matthew A. Turner. 2011. “The Fundamental Law of Road Congestion: Evidence from US Cities.” American Economic Review. 101 (6): 2616-52. DOI: 10.1257/aer.101.6.2616. https://www.aeaweb.org/articles?id=10.1257/aer.101.6.2616. Dunkerley F., Laird J., Whittaker B. Rand Corporation. “Induced Travel Demand – An Evidence Review.” UK Department of Transport. November 28, 2018. https://www.rand.org/pubs/external_ publications/EP67749.html. Garcia-Lopez, M.A., Yazidis, I. and Viladecans-Marsal, E. “Congestion in Highways When Tolls and Railroads Matter: Evidence from European Cities.” November 2020. https://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=7792005. Downs, Anthony. Stuck in Traffic: Coping with Peak-Hour Traffic Congestion. Brookings Institution Press, 2000. Cervero Robert. “Are Induced-Travel Studies Inducing Bad Investments?” ACCESS Magazine, 1(22). April 2003. https://escholarship.org/content/qt5r5798jt/qt5r5798jt.pdf. This critiques some earlier induced traffic studies as flawed, for instance due to the fact that they do not adequately address causality between road expansion and increased travel demand. Studies by Duranton and Turner (2011) and Garcia-Lopez et al (2020) contain extensive controls to allow them to identify the causal link from road investment to traffic volumes.
  5. Ministry of Transport. The Congestion Question: Main Findings. Wellington: Ministry of Transport. Read. This analysis shows that applying a modest peak-time charge will significantly improve road network performance and the quality of travel for users, and that the equity impacts of congestion pricing are modest and manageable with complementary measures.
  6. Cavallaro F., Giarette F., and Nocera S. “The Potential of Road Pricing Schemes to Reduce Carbon Emissions” Transport Policy. 2018. Accessed September 17, 2021. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0967070X16304061?via%3Dihub
  7. Kassirer J. and Boddy, S. “Stockholm Congestion Pricing.” Tools of Change. 2014. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://toolsofchange.com/en/case-studies/detail/670
  8. D’Artagnan Consulting. 2018. Review of International Road Pricing Schemes, Previous Reports and Technologies. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Transport. Read
  9. Eliasson, Jonas. “The Stockholm Congestion Charges: An Overview,” Centre for Transport Studies; Stockholm. 7 (2015). https://transportportal.se/swopec/cts2014-7.pdf
  10. In the extreme case where no non-car travel modes are available, tolls would have to be set high enough to discourage a significant number of people from making trips. This would impose social costs on low-income people who may end up foregoing important trips.
  1. Ministry of Transport. The Congestion Question: Main Findings. Wellington, New Zealand. 2020. Read
  2. Waka Kotahi – New Zealand Transport Agency. Arataki Version 2. Accessed August 23, 2021. https://www.nzta.govt.nz/planning-and-investment/planning/arataki/arataki-version-2/.c
  3. Tian, Guang, Reid Ewing, Alex White, Shima Hamidi, Jerry Walters, J. P. Goates, and Alex Joyce. “Traffic Generated by Mixed-Use Developments: Thirteen-Region Study Using Consistent Measures of Built Environment.” Transportation Research Record 2500, no. 1 (2015): 116-124.
  4. Institute for Transportation & Development Policy. TOD Standard. June 2017. (Replacing Versions 1.0, 2.0, and 2.1.) https://www.itdp.org/publication/tod-standard/
  5. UN-Habitat. Streets as Public Spaces and Drivers of Urban Prosperity. Nairobi, Kenya: United Nations Human Settlements Programme. 2013. https://unhabitat.org/streets-as-public-spacesand-drivers-of-urban-prosperity
  6. Reducing the quantity of residential and on-street parking required in new developments has been shown to reduce vehicle ownership and therefore reduce the traffic impacts of new development. On average, providing one additional residential carpark causes households to acquire around 0.5 additional cars, with a flow-on effect to additional driving. International evidence is provided by Guo, Zhan. “Residential Street Parking and Car Ownership: A Study of Households With Off-Street Parking in the New York City Region.” Journal of the American Planning Association 79, no. 1 (2013): 32-48. Weinberger, Rachel, Mark Seaman, and Carolyn Johnson. “Residential Off-Street Parking Impacts on Car Ownership, Vehicle Miles Traveled, and Related Carbon Emissions: New York City Case Study.” Transportation Research Record 2118, no. 1 (2009): 24-30. Christiansen, Petter, Oystein Engebretsen, Nils Fearnley, and Jan Ushered Hanssen. “Parking Facilities and the Built Environment: Impacts on Travel Behaviour.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 95 (2017): 198-206. De Groote, Jesper, Jos Van Ommeren, and Hans RA Koster. “Car Ownership and Residential Parking Subsidies: Evidence from Amsterdam.” Economics of Transportation 6 (2016): 25-37. Seya, Hajime, Kumiko Nakamichi, and Yoshiki Yamagata. “The Residential Parking Rent Price Elasticity of Car Ownership in Japan.” Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 85 (2016): 123-134. Khazaeian, 2021, demonstrates that the same dynamics apply in Wellington. As a result, countries like Singapore and Japan tax or restrict the supply of residential carparks to reduce traffic congestion impacts of new development. Khazaeian, Omid. “Estimating the Impact of Parking on Car Ownership and Commute Mode Choices.” PhD diss., Open Access Victoria University of Wellington: Te Herenga Waka. Wellington. 2021. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Omid-Khazaeian
  7. Donnell, Hayden. “Dispelling the City Rail Link myths.” OurAuckland -Tō Tātou Tāmaki Makarau, January 30, 2019. Accessed August 23, 2021. https://ourauckland.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/news/2019/01/dispelling-city-rail-link-myths/
  8. City Rail Link. “Key Facts about CRL — City Rail Link.” Auckland, New Zealand. Accessed August 23, 2021. https://www.cityraillink.co.nz/key-facts
  9. City Rail Link “Benefits Incl Travel Times — City Rail Link.” Auckland New Zealand. Accessed August 23, 2021. https://www.cityraillink.co.nz/crls-benefits
  10. By comparison, Hobsonville Point is 167 hectares and is planned to provide 4,500 new homes (26 dwellings/ha) for 11,000 people (65 people/ha). https://www.beehive.govt.nz/sites/default/files/1.Fact-sheet-Hobsonville-Point.pdf
  11. City Rail Link Limited. Blueprint Report for Mount Eden and Karangahape. 2020. PwC. Leveraging the CRL for a Compact City. 2020. 212. Statistics New Zealand. 2020. “Four in 10 Employed New Zealanders Work From Home During Lockdown.” Accessed September 15, 2021. https://www.stats.govt.nz/news/four-in-10-employednew-zealanders-work-from-home-during-lockdown
  1. For instance, a recent analysis for Wellington City found that almost every suburb in the city is currently facing water-storage or pipe-capacity constraints or will be facing constraints in the near future. A subsequent pre-feasibility analysis estimated that the total cost of water upgrades to service growth may be as high as $5 billion, with per-household costs that range from $50,000 per added household in the central city, to a high of more than $300,000 per household in some nearby suburbs. Wellington Water Limited. WCC’s Spatial Plan – Preferred Growth Scenario – Three Waters Assessment. 2019. Read
  2. Te Tari Taiwhenua – Department of Internal Affairs. National Evidence Base. 2019. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://www.dia.govt.nz/three-waters-reform-programme-national-evidencebase
  3. Sutherland, Douglas, et al. “Public Policies and Investment in Network Infrastructure.” OECD Journal: Economic Studies 2011/1. (2011). http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eco_studies-2011-5kg51mlvk6r6
  4. Different water providers fund infrastructure and service provision in different ways, using varying combinations of infrastructure growth charges/development contributions (charges levied on new households that are connecting to the network), annual fixed charges for water services and volumetric charges that vary according to how much water is used. Some pricing approaches are more closely aligned to best practice funding and financing principles than others.
  5. New Zealand Productivity Commission. Local Government Funding and Financing. November 2019: 83. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/assets/Documents/a40d80048d/Final-report_Local- government-funding-and-financing.pdf
  6. Department of Industry, Science, Energy and Resources Australia. Water Sensitive Cities. Realising the Vision of a Water Sensitive City. https://watersensitivecities.org.au/ for an overview of this topic.
  7. A building consent is needed to install a rainwater tank over 2000L in size. Level New Zealand. “Mains or Rainwater?” https://www.level.org.nz/water/water-supply/mains-or-rainwater/ (Level. org.nz has been developed for the construction industry by BRANZ Ltd, the independent research, testing, consulting and information company). In addition, some councils impose additional resource consent requirements that restrict the design and location of rainwater tanks, for instance https://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/environment/looking-after-aucklands-water/rainwater-tanks/Pages/rainwater-tank-installation-maintenance.aspx (Auckland City Council).
  8. Ministry of Transport. Te Urupounamu mō Te Pokenga o Ngā Rori: The Congestion Question. Accessed February 22, 2022. https://www.transport.govt.nz/area-of-interest/auckland/the-congestion-question/
  9. Alpine Fault Magnitude 8. “Likelihood of an Alpine Fault Earthquake Increases.” In AF8 Science, How to Prepare, News. April 20, 2021. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://af8.org.nz/alpine-fault-earthquake-likelihood-increases/
  10. GeoNet. “Geological Hazard Information for New Zealand.” https://quakesearch.geonet.org.nz/ GeoNet is a collaboration between the Earthquake Commission and GNS Science. GeoNet content is copyright GNS Science and is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 New Zealand License.
  11. Te Tai Ōhanga – The Treasury. “Budget Policy Statement 2013.” December 18, 2012. https://www.treasury.govt.nz/publications/budget-policy-statement/budget-policy-statement-2013-html
  12. Stock, Rob. “Lloyds’ Report Ranks New Zealand Second for Natural Disaster Costs.” Stuff, October 24, 2018. Accessed September 16, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/business/money/108064804/lloyds-report-ranks-new-zealand-second-for-natural-disaster-costs
  13. Insurance Council of New Zealand. “The cost of natural disasters.” Accessed September 22, 2021. https://www.icnz.org.nz/natural-disasters/cost-of-natural-disasters
  14. Wellington Region Emergency Management. Wellington Lifelines Project: Protecting Wellington’s Economy Through Accelerated Infrastructure Investment Programme Business Case. October 4, 2019: 4. https://www.wremo.nz/assets/Uploads/Wellington-Lifelines-PBC-MAINCombined-20191009.pdf
  15. AON. Local Government: How to Survive and Thrive in a World of Evolving Risk. 2021. Accessed on September 22, 2021. https://www.aon.co.nz/About-Aon/Aon-Blog/Local-Government
  1. New Zealand Productivity Commission. Local Government Funding and Financing – Draft Report” July 2019: 224. Read
  2. Controller and Auditor-General. Insuring Public Assets: Discussion Paper. Wellington, New Zealand. June 2013. https://oag.parliament.nz/2013/insuring-public-assets/docs/insuring-publicassets.pdf
  3. AON. Local Government: How to Survive and Thrive in a World of Evolving Risk. 2021. Accessed on September 22, 2021. https://www.aon.co.nz/About-Aon/Aon-Blog/Local-Government
  4. Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management. National Disaster Resilience Strategy. Wellington, New Zealand: 7. https://www.civildefence.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/publications/National-Disaster-Resilience-Strategy/National-Disaster-Resilience-Strategy-10-April-2019.pdf
  5. Ministry of Civil Defence and Emergency Management. National Disaster Resilience Strategy. Wellington, New Zealand: 31. https://www.civildefence.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/publications/National-Disaster-Resilience-Strategy/National-Disaster-Resilience-Strategy-10-April-2019.pdf
  6. Australian Business Roundtable for Disaster Resilience and Safer Communities. The Economic Cost of the Social Impact of Natural Disasters. 2016. http://australianbusinessroundtable.com.au/our-research/social-costs-report
  7. For example, the Telecommunications (Interception Capability and Security) Act for the telecommunications sector, and the Electricity Industry Act 2010 for the electricity sector.
  8. Civil Defence Emergency Management Act 2002. https://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2002/0033/51.0/DLM149789.html
  9. Government Communications and Security Bureau. “NZ Information Security Manual.” 2022. https://www.gcsb.govt.nz/publications/the-nz-information-security-manual/
  10. OECD. Good Governance for Critical Infrastructure Resilience. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2019. https://doi.org/10.1787/02f0e5a0-en
  11. National Cyber Security Centre. Cyber Threat Report 2019/2020. 2020: 3. https://www.ncsc.govt.nz/assets/NCSC-Documents/NCSC-Cyber-Threat-Report-2020.pdf
  12. EBoss. Construction Supply Chain Report. New Zealand. 2021: 7. https://www.eboss.co.nz/assets/marketing/supply-chain-survey/EBOSS-Construction-Supply-Chain-Report-2021.pdf
  13. New Zealand Infrastructure Commission – Te Waihanga. He Tūāpapa ki te Ora. Wellington, New Zealand, 2021. https://infracom.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Infrastructure-Strategy-Consultation-Document-May-2021.pdf
  14. Ministry for the Environment, National Climate Change Risk Assessment for New Zealand. Wellington: New Zealand Government, August 2020. Read
  15. International Plant Protection Convention. “Climate Change Widespread, Rapid, and Intensifying.” IPCC. August 9, 2021. Accessed September 15, 2021. https://www.ipcc.ch/2021/08/09/ar6-wg1-20210809-pr/
  16. Simonson, Tom, and Grace Hall. Vulnerable: The Quantum of Local Government Infrastructure Exposed to Sea Level Rise. Local Government New Zealand, 2019: 12. https://www.lgnz.co.nz/assets/Uploads/d566cc5291/47716-LGNZ-Sea-Level-Rise-Report-3-Proof-FINAL-compressed.pdf
  17. Ministry for the Environment. “Adapting to Climate Change”. Wellington, New Zealand. https://environment.govt.nz/what-government-is-doing/areas-of-work/climate-change/adapting-to-climatechange/
  18. Infrastructure Australia. A Pathway to Infrastructure Resilience Advisory Paper 1: Opportunities for Systemic Change. NSW, August 2021. https://www.infrastructureaustralia.gov.au/sites/default/files/2021-08/Advisory%20Paper%201%20-%20A%20pathway%20to%20Infrastructure%20Resilience%20FINAL.pdf
  19. Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center. “Global Mean Sea Level Trend from Integrated Multi-Mission Ocean Altimeters TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, OSTM/Jason-2, and Jason-3 Version 5.0 Ver. 5.0 PO.DAAC, CA, USA”. 2020. Accessed September 12, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.5067/GMSLM-TJ150
  1. Auckland Council. Te Tāruke-ā-Tāwhiri: Auckland’s Climate Plan. Auckland, New Zealand: 36. December 2020. https://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/plans-projects-policies-reports-bylaws/our-plans-strategies/topic-based-plans-strategies/environmental-plans-strategies/aucklands-climate-plan/Documents/auckland-climate-plan.pdf
  2. Alpine Fault Magnitude 8. “Likelihood of an Alpine Fault earthquake increases.” April 20, 2021. Accessed September 14, 2021. https://af8.org.nz/alpine-fault-earthquake-likelihood-increases/
  3. Fanta, V., Šalek, M. & Sklenicka, P. “How Long Do Floods Throughout the Millennium Remain in the Collective Memory?” Nat Commun 10, (2019): 1105. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09102-3
  4. Lewis Danny, “These Century-Old Stone “Tsunami Stones” Dot Japan’s Coastline. Smithsonian Magazine, August 31, 2015. https://www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/century-old-warnings-against-tsunamis-dot-japans-coastline-180956448/
  5. Ko Takeuchi. “Are we listening to our ancestors’ warnings?” World Bank Blogs. Accessed September 16, 2021. https://blogs.worldbank.org/sustainablecities/are-we-listening-our-ancestorswarnings-disaster-risk-management
  6. Evans, K. “The River’s Lizard Tail: Braiding Indigenous Knowledges with Geomorphology.” Eos 101, (September 14, 2020). https://eos.org/features/the-rivers-lizard-tail-braiding-indigenous-knowledges-with-geomorphology
  7. Infrastructure Australia. A Pathway to Infrastructure Resilience Advisory Paper 1: Opportunities for systemic change. NSW, August 2021. https://www.infrastructureaustralia.gov.au/sites/default/files/2021-08/Advisory%20Paper%201%20-%20A%20pathway%20to%20Infrastructure%20Resilience%20FINAL.pdf
  8. Earthquake Commission New Zealand. Resilience Strategy for Natural Hazard Risk Reduction. 2019-2029. November 2019: 10. https://www.eqc.govt.nz/assets/Publications-Resources/Resilience-and-Research-Publications-/EQC-Resilience-Strategy-2019-2029.pdf
  9. GNS Science. “The New Zealand National Seismic Hazard Model.” https://www.gns.cri.nz/Home/Our-Science/Natural-Hazards-and-Risks/Earthquakes/National-Seismic-Hazard-Model-Programme. Outputs from the current NSHM revision work (2020-22).
  10. New Zealand Forward Works Viewer. “Common Good Technology to Build a Better New Zealand.” Accessed September 14, 2021. Read
  11. MERIT. “Measuring the Economics of Resilient Infrastructure.” Accessed September 16, 2021. https://www.merit.org.nz/merit/
  12. OECD iLibrary. ”Municipal Waste,” Accessed November 10, 2020. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/municipal-waste/indicator/english_89d5679a-en
  13. Ministry for the Environment. “Waste Disposed of at Levied Disposal Facilities.” July 2021. Accessed November 10, 2020. https://environment.govt.nz/facts-and-science/waste/calculations-of-waste-disposed-of-at-levied-disposal-facilities/
  14. Wilson, Duncan, Tanzir Chowdhury, Tim Elliott, and Laurence Elliott, Dominic Hogg. The New Zealand Waste Disposal Levy: Potential Impacts of Adjustments to the Current Levy Rate and Structure. Eunomia Research & Consulting. 2017. https://www.eunomia.co.uk/reports-tools/thenew-zealand-waste-disposal-levy-potential-impacts-of-adjustments-to-the-current-levy-rate-andstructure/
  15. Ministry for the Environment. New Zealand’s Greenhouse Gas Inventory 1990–2018. Wellington, New Zealand, April 2020: 349. https://environment.govt.nz/publications/new-zealands-greenhouse-gas-inventory-1990-2018/
  16. BRANZ. “Reducing Building Material Waste.” Accessed November 19, 2020. https://www.branz.co.nz/sustainable-building/reducing-building-waste/
  17. Wilson, Duncan, Tanzir Chowdhury, Tim Elliott, and Laurence Elliott, Dominic Hogg. The New Zealand Waste Disposal Levy: Potential Impacts of Adjustments to the Current Levy Rate and Structure. Eunomia Research & Consulting. 2017: 79. https://www.eunomia.co.uk/reports-tools/the-new-zealand-waste-disposal-levy-potential-impacts-of-adjustments-to-the-current-levy-rate-and-structure/
  1. OECD iLibrary. Global Material Resources Outlook to 2060: Economic Drivers and Environmental Consequences. Paris: OECD Publishing. 2019. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/global-material-resources-outlook-to-2060_9789264307452-en
  2. Access Economics. Employment in Waste Management and Recycling, Report for the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Australia: Department of Agriculture, Water and the Environment, 2009. Read
  3. Godfrey, R, J Trinh, B Grant, and C Wardle. Victorian Waste Flows. Victoria, Australia: Infrastructure Victoria, October 11, 2019. Accessed 24 February 2022. https://www.infrastructurevictoria.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Victorian-Waste-Flows-Blue-Environment-October-2019-FINAL-REPORT.pdf
  4. New Zealand Infrastructure Commission – Te Waihanga. Sector State of Play: Resource Recovery and Waste. 2021. https://infracom.govt.nz/assets/State-of-Play-Resource-Recovery-and-Waste-Discussion-Document-March-2021.pdf
  5. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. 2021. Municipal Waste, Generation and Treatment. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. https://stats.oecd.org/Index.aspx?DataSetCode=MUNW
  6. Infrastructure Victoria. Victoria’s Infrastructure Strategy 2021-2051: Section 1.5 Build a Circular Economy for Waste and Recycling. 2021. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://www.infrastructurevictoria.com.au/report/1-5-build-a-circular-economy-for-waste-and-recycling/
  7. Climate Change Commission - He Pou a Rangi. Ināia Tonu Nei: A Low-Emissions Future For Aotearoa. 2021. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://ccc-production-media.s3.ap-southeast-2.amazonaws.com/public/Inaia-tonu-nei-a-low-emissions-future-for-Aotearoa/Inaia-tonu-nei-a-lowemissions-future-for-Aotearoa.pdf
  8. WasteMINZ. National Waste Data Framework Project. 2017. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://www.wasteminz.org.nz/projects/national-waste-data-framework-project/
  9. Densley Tingley D., J Giesekam, and S Cooper-Searle. “Applying Circular Economic Principles to Reduce Embodied Carbon.” In Embodied Carbon in Buildings edited by F Pomponi, C De Wolf, and A Moncaster A., 265-285 (Cham:Springer, 2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-72796-7_12.
  10. Office of the Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor. 2019. Rethinking Plastics in Aotearoa New Zealand: Full Report. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://cpb-ap-se2.wpmucdn.com/blogs.auckland.ac.nz/dist/f/688/files/2020/02/Rethinking-Plastics-in-Aotearoa-New-Zealand_Full-Report_8-Dec-2019-PDF-1.pdf
  11. Ministry for the Environment. Review of the Effectiveness of the Waste Disposal Levy, 2014 in Accordance with Section 39 of the Waste Minimisation Act 2008. Wellington: Ministry for the Environment. 2014. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://environment.govt.nz/publications/review-of-the-effectiveness-of-the-waste-disposal-levy-2014/
  12. For instance, in 2014, the Ministry for the Environment proposed increasing the levy to $100 or more.
  13. The additional funding from the increase in the waste disposal levy will also be used to expand data collection and management systems, as well as strengthen compliance and monitoring activities and increasing education campaigns and promotions.
  14. Tax Working Group. Future of Tax: Final Report. 2019. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://taxworkinggroup.govt.nz/resources/future-tax-final-report.html
  15. Grant Thornton. 2020. Report on Waste Disposal Levy Investment Options: A Report for the Ministry for the Environment. Accessed 21 September 2021. https://environment.govt.nz/assets/publications/waste-levy-investment-options.pdf
  16. Ministry for the Environment, Regulatory Impact Statement: Increase and Expansion of Waste Disposal Levy. Ministry for the Environment, 2020: 22.
  17. Duncan W, L Eve, and A Grant. National Resource Recovery Project - Situational Analysis Report. Ministry for the Environment. 2018. https://environment.govt.nz/assets/Publications/Files/national-resource-recovery-project-redacted.pdf
  1. Infrastructure Victoria, Advice on Recycling and Resource Recovery Infrastructure. Melbourne: Infrastructure Victoria, 2020: 26. https://www.infrastructurevictoria.com.au/project/advice-onwaste-infrastructure-in-victoria/
  2. New Zealand Infrastructure Commission – Te Waihanga. Sector State of Play: Resource Recovery and Waste. 2021: 21. Accessed 24 February 2022. https://infracom.govt.nz/assets/State-of-Play-Resource-Recovery-and-Waste-Discussion-Document-March-2021.pdf
  3. Satherley, Dan. “The Kiwi Town Making Roads Out of Plastic.” Newshub, June 6, 2019. Accessed March 20, 2021. https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2019/06/the-kiwi-town-makingroads-out-of-plastic.html
  4. Jones, Lauren. “Downer Begins Large Scale Trial of Shredded Plastic in Asphalt.” Roads and Infrastructure Australia, June 7, 2019. Accessed March 25, 2021. https://www.roadsonline.com.au/downer-begins-large-scale-trial-of-shredded-plastic-in-asphalt/
  5. BRANZ. “Reducing Building Material Waste.” Accessed November 19, 2020. https://www.branz.co.nz/sustainable-building/reducing-building-waste/
  6. BRANZ. “Reducing Building Material Waste.” Accessed November 19, 2020. https://www.branz.co.nz/sustainable-building/reducing-building-waste/
  7. Major Infrastructure – Resource Optimisation Group. The Case for a Resource Exchange Mechanism. 2019. https://aecom.com/content/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/MI-ROG-White-Paper_3-The-Case-for-a-REM_Oct2019.pdf
  8. CivilShare is an application to connect civil contractors to trade excess resources. It is available online at http://civilshare.co.nz/
  9. Parker, D. “Funding for Projects to Reduce Waste from Construction and Demolition.” 2021. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/funding-projects-reduce-waste-construction-and-demolition
  10. Firstgas Group. Biogas and Biomethane in NZ: Unlocking New Zealand’s Renewable Natural Gas Potential. July 1, 2021. Accessed February 14, 2022. https://gasischanging.co.nz/assets/uploads/Biogas-and-Biomethane-in-NZ-Unlocking-New-Zealands-Renewable-Natural-Gas-Potential.pdf
  11. Ministry for the Environment. Factsheet: A Waste to Energy Guide for New Zealand. 2020. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://environment.govt.nz/assets/Publications/Files/waste-to-energy-guide-for-new-zealand.pdf
  12. New South Wales Government. Energy from Waste Infrastructure Plan. 2021. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/-/media/epa/corporate-site/resources/waste/21p3261-energy-from-waste-infrastructure-plan.pdf. The government’s new waste strategy proposes to include reducing emissions from organic waste as a key priority area.
  13. Nadkarni, A. 2021. “Fletcher Building to Convert Tyres into Cement at Whangārei Plant.” Stuff. March 30, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/business/124694868/fletcher-building-to-convert-tyresinto-cement-at-whangrei-plant
  14. Tyrewise Advisory Group. Regulated Product Stewardship for End of Life Tyres “Tyrewise 2.0”: Updated Report. July 22, 2020. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://1l0ppppax8b3fccwh3zobtws-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/Tyrewise-2.0-Master-Report-Final-Released-22July2020-with-disclaimer.pdf
  15. Based on an average tyre weight of around 12kg, 3 million tyres would equate to around 36,000 tonnes of waste. A total of around 3.5 million tonnes of waste is landfilled every year. Ministry for the Environment. Waste Disposed of at Levied Disposal Facilities. 2021. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://environment.govt.nz/what-government-is-doing/areas-of-work/waste/waste-disposal-levy/calculations-of-waste-disposed-of-at-levied-disposal-facilities/
  16. Ministry of Environment. “Te Pūtea Whakamauru Para Waste Minimisation Fund” June 4, 2021. Accessed February 27, 2021. https://environment.govt.nz/what-you-can-do/funding/waste-minimisation-fund/waste-minimisation-fund-funded-projects/
  17. New Zealand Government. Wellbeing Budget 2021: Budget at a Glance. 2021. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://www.treasury.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2021-05/b21-at-a-glance.pdf
  1. NZ Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. “Investment Gap or Efficiency Gap? Benchmarking New Zealand’s Investment in Infrastructure.” Te Waihanga Research Insights Series. December 2021. Accessed February 24, 2022. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/strategy/reports/tewaihanga-research-insights-december-2021/ International Monetary Fund. “Investment and Capital Stock Dataset (ICSD).” 2015. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://data.imf.org/?sk=1CE8A55F-CFA7-4BC0-BCE2-256EE65AC0E4
  2. World Economic Forum. 2019. The Global Competitiveness Report 2019: Insight Report. Accessed September 20, 2021. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TheGlobalCompetitivenessReport2019.pdf
  3. NZ Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. “Investment Gap or Efficiency Gap? Benchmarking New Zealand’s Investment in Infrastructure.” Te Waihanga Research Insights Series. December 2021. Accessed February 24, 2022. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/strategy/reports/te-waihanga-research-insights-december-2021/
  4. International Monetary Fund. Making Public Investment More Efficient: Staff Report. 2015. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2015/061115.pdf
  5. Some analysis suggests that most public investment is ‘wasted’ in the worst-performing countries. Pritchett, L. “The Tyranny of Concepts: CUDIE (Cumulated, Depreciated, Investment Effort) is not Capital.” Journal of Economic Growth, 5(4), 2000: 361-384.
  6. Te Tai Ōhanga – The Treasury. Treasury Report – Capital Panel Advice Budget 2021. Report No: T2021/465. File Number: ST-4-8-4-11-2. Wellington, New Zealand: The Treasury. August 2021: 9. https://budget.govt.nz/information-release/2021/pdf/b21-t2021-465-4423983.pdf
  7. These 30 projects comprised 80% of the value of all capital initiatives in the Budget, March 5, 2021.
  8. NineSquared. Interim Project Review of Transmission Gully PPP Project: Report Prepared for the New Zealand Infrastructure Commission/Te Waihanga. 2021. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/major-projects/reviews/transmission-gully/
  9. Merrow, E.W, Industrial Megaprojects: Concepts, Strategies, and Practices for Success. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. 2011.
  10. Terrill, M., O Emslie, and G Moran. The Rise of Megaprojects: Counting the Costs. Grattan Institute Report No 2020-15. 2020. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://grattan.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/The-Rise-of-Megaprojects-Grattan-Report.pdf
  11. Flyvbjerg, Bent. “Survival of the Unfittest: Why the Worst Infrastructure Gets Built—and What We Can Do About It.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy, 25, no. 3, 2009: 344-367. Cantarelli, Chantal C., Bent Flyvbjerg, and Soren L. Buhl. “Geographical Variation in Project Cost Performance: The Netherlands Versus Worldwide.” Journal of Transport Geography, 24, 2012: 324-331. Sovacool, Benjamin K., Alex Gilbert, and Daniel Nugent. “An International Comparative Assessment of Construction Cost Overruns for Electricity Infrastructure.” Energy Research & Social Science, 3, 2014: 152-160.
  12. Cadot, Olivier, Lars-Hendrik Roller, and Andreas Stephan. “Contribution to Productivity or Pork Barrel? The Two Faces of Infrastructure Investment.” Journal of Public Economics, 90, no. 6-7, 2006: 1133-1153. Eliasson, Jonas, Maria Borjesson, James Odeck, and Morten Welde. “Does Benefit–Cost Efficiency Influence Transport Investment Decisions?” Journal of Transport Economics and Policy, 49, no. 3, 2015: 377-396. Coyle, Diane, and Marianne Sensier. “The Imperial Treasury: Appraisal Methodology and Regional Economic Performance in the UK.” Regional Studies, 2019.
  13. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. Getting Infrastructure Right: The Ten Key Governance Challenges and Policy Options. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co- Operation and Development. 2017. https://www.oecd.org/gov/getting-infrastructure-right.pdf. Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. OECD Recommendation on the Governance of Infrastructure. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development. 2020. https://www.oecd.org/gov/infrastructure-governance/recommendation/. Infrastructure Australia. Infrastructure Decision-Making Principles. Canberra, Australia: Infrastructure Australia. 2018. https://www.infrastructureaustralia.gov.au/publications/infrastructure-decision-making-principles
  1. Sutherland, D, S Araujo, B Egert, . and T Kozluk. “Public Policies and Investment in Network Infrastructure.” OECD Journal: Economic Studies, 2011(1): 1-23. Read. Beecher, J.A. “Economic Regulation of Utility Infrastructure.” In Infrastructure and Land Policies. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. 2013. https://www.lincolninst.edu/sites/default/files/pubfiles/economic-regulation-of-utility-infrastructure_0.pdf
  2. See chapter 2 in Andrews, M, L Pritchett, and M Woolcock. Building State Capability: Evidence, Analysis, Action. Oxford University Press. 2017: 288.
  3. Sutherland, D, S Araujo, B Egert,. and T Kozluk. “Public Policies and Investment in Network Infrastructure.” OECD Journal: Economic Studies, 2011(1): 1-23. Read
  4. For further discussion, see Chapter 5 in Productivity Commission. Local Government Funding and Financing: Final report. Wellington, New Zealand: Productivity Commission. 2019. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/assets/Documents/a40d80048d/Final-report_Local-government-funding-and-financing.pdf
  5. NZ Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. Investment Gap or Efficiency Gap? Benchmarking New Zealand’s Investment in Infrastructure. Te Waihanga Research Insights Series. December 2021. Accessed 24 February 2022. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/strategy/reports/te-waihanga-research-insights-december-2021/
  6. International Transport Forum. Strategic Infrastructure Planning: International Best Practice. Paris, France: International Transport Forum. 2017. https://www.itf-oecd.org/strategic-infrastructure-planning
  7. See Section 5.7 in Productivity Commission. Local Government Funding and Financing: Final report. Wellington, New Zealand: Productivity Commission. 2019. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/assets/Documents/a40d80048d/Final-report_Local-government-funding-and-financing.pdf
  8. World Energy Council. World Energy Trilemma Index. London, UK: World Energy Council. 2020. https://www.worldenergy.org/transition-toolkit/world-energy-trilemma-index
  9. Some electricity distributors are subject to price-quality regulation and some are subject to information disclosure requirements. Four gas distribution and transmission businesses are subject to price-quality regulation. Commerce Commission. Electricity Lines Default Price-Quality Path: 2020-2025 Default Price-Quality Path. Wellington, New Zealand: Commerce Commission. 2020. https://comcom.govt.nz/regulated-industries/electricity-lines/electricity-lines-price-qualitypaths/electricity-lines-default-price-quality-path/2020-2025-default-price-quality-path. Commerce Commission. Gas Pipelines Default Price-Quality Path: 2022 Gas Default Price-Quality Path. Wellington, New Zealand: Commerce Commission. 2021. https://comcom.govt.nz/regulated-industries/gas-pipelines/gas-pipelines-price-quality-paths/gas-pipelines-default-pricequality-path/2022-2027-gas-default-price-quality-path
  10. The OECD Recommendation of the Council on the Governance of Infrastructure recommends that countries develop a long-term strategic vision for infrastructure which is fiscally sustainable, linked with budget allocations and other sources of financing, and aligned with the medium-term expenditure framework. This provides assurance to the relevant stakeholders of the stable, multi-year availability of resources. https://www.oecd.org/gov/infrastructure-governance/recommendation/
  11. See Section 93 of the Local Government Act 2002. https://www.legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2002/0084/latest/DLM172344.html
  12. Treasury reviews Long Term Investment Plans as part of its Investor Confidence Rating scores. On average, agencies rank lower for quality of Long-Term Investment Plans than any other component of the Investor Confidence Rating, although there have been signs of improvement. Treasury. Investor Confidence Rating (ICR). Wellington, New Zealand: Treasury. 2021. https://www.treasury.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2021-07/icr-results-analysis-jul21.pdf. Treasury. Investor Confidence Rating - Quality of Long-Term Investment Plans. Wellington, New Zealand: Treasury. 2017. https://www.treasury.govt.nz/information-and-services/state-sectorleadership/investment-management/review-investment-reviews/investor-confidence-rating-icr/investor-confidence-rating-quality-long-term-investment-plans. Treasury. Investment Intensive Agencies. Wellington, New Zealand: Treasury. 2020. https://www.treasury.govt.nz/information-and-services/state-sector-leadership/investment-management/review-investment-reviews/investment-intensive-agencies
  1. For example, agencies that have projects in the Te Waihanga pipeline starting in 2023 or later are Watercare, Wellington Airport, Transpower and Kainga Ora, all of which have long term funding sources.
  2. A potential model is the New South Wales Capital Planning Process, a cyclical process that takes place annually alongside the annual State Budget process. https://www.treasury.nsw.gov.au/information-public-entities/capital-planning
  3. See Asset Management Plan scores across agencies as part of Results Analysis: Round 1 and Round 2 in The Treasury. Investor Confidence Rating. Wellington, New Zealand: The Treasury. 2021. https://www.treasury.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2021-07/icr-results-analysis-jul21.pdf
  4. OECD. OECD Compendium of Policy Good Practices for Quality Infrastructure Investment. 2020. www.oecd.org/finance/oecd-compendium-of-policy-good-practices-for-quality-infrastructure-investment.htm
  5. The Office of the Auditor-General has previously highlighted the need for decision-makers to understand the risks in managing physical assets and ensure that these risks are actively managed. Office of the Auditor-General. Reflections From Our Audits: Investment and Asset Management. Wellington, New Zealand: Office of the Auditor-General. 2017. https://oag.parliament.nz/2017/asset-reflections. Office of the Auditor-General. Managing Public Assets. Wellington, New Zealand: Office of the Auditor-General. 2013. https://oag.parliament.nz/2013/managing-public-assets
  6. The Australian infrastructure priority list is available online here: Infrastructure Australia. Infrastructure Priority List. Canberra, Australia: Infrastructure Australia. 2021. https://www.infrastructureaustralia.gov.au/infrastructure-priority-list. An infrastructure priority list could draw upon sector-specific long-term planning exercises, such as the Ministry of Transport’s “Generational Investment Approach.” https://www.transport.govt.nz/area-of-interest/infrastructure-and-investment/generational-investment-approach-gia/
  7. Infrastructure New South Wales. Timely Information on Infrastructure Projects. Sydney, Australia: Infrastructure New South Wales. 2020. https://www.infrastructure.nsw.gov.au/expert-advice/timely-information-on-infrastructure-projects/
  8. Terrill, M, O Emslie, and G Moran. The Rise of Megaprojects: Counting the Costs. Grattan Institute Report No 2020-15. 2020. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://grattan.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/The-Rise-of-Megaprojects-Grattan-Report.pdf
  9. Te Waihanga Sector State of Plays review current evidence on the performance of different infrastructure sectors. NZ Infrastructure Commission / Te Waihanga. “Sector State of Plays.” 2021. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/strategy/state-of-plays/
  10. Infrastructure and Projects Authority. Principles for Project Success. London, United Kingdom. 2020. Read
  11. Infrastructure and Projects Authority. Annual Report on Major Projects 2020-21: Reporting to Cabinet Office and HM Treasury. London, United Kingdom. 2021. Read
  12. Of the 89 current projects at the end of the 2020/2021 financial year that have been on the GMPP for at least a year, 36% (32 projects) have improved their DCA since the last Annual Report, while 12% (12 projects) have moved to a worse DCA than in 2019. Of those that improved DCA, 10 projects improved by 2 or more DCA ratings.
  13. This was also highlighted in Australian Productivity Commission. Public Infrastructure Inquiry. Canberra, Australia: Productivity Commission. 2014. https://www.pc.gov.au/inquiries/completed/infrastructure/report
  14. The Deep South Challenge. “Changing with our climate.” Accessed on February 14, 2022. https://deepsouthchallenge.co.nz/resource/from-theory-to-practice-a-timeline-of-interventionsby-a-change-agent-with-the-developers-and-users-of-dynamic-adaptive-policy-pathwaysdapp/. Infrastructure Australia. Guide to Risk and Uncertainty Analysis: Technical Guide of the Assessment Framework. July 2021. Read
  1. The Treasury. Guide to Social Cost Benefit Analysis. Wellington, New Zealand: The Treasury. 2015. https://www.treasury.govt.nz/publications/guide/guide-social-cost-benefit-analysis
  2. Waka Kotahi. Monetised Benefits and Costs Manual. Wellington, New Zealand: Waka Kotahi. 2020. https://www.nzta.govt.nz/resources/monetised-benefits-and-costs-manual/
  3. Commerce Commission. Transpower Input Methodologies: Transpower Capital Expenditure Input Methodology Determination. Wellington, New Zealand: Commerce Commission. 2020. https://comcom.govt.nz/regulated-industries/input-methodologies/transpower-ims
  4. Boardman, Anthony E., David H. Greenberg, Aidan R. Vining, and David L. Weimer. Cost-Benefit Analysis: Concepts and Practice. Cambridge University Press, 2017.
  5. The Treasury’s CBAx tool is an existing method for publishing and reviewing key parameters. The Treasury. “The Treasury’s CBAx Tool.” https://www.treasury.govt.nz/information-and-services/state-sector-leadership/investment-management/plan-investment-choices/cost-benefit-analysis-including-public-sector-discount-rates/treasurys-cbax-tool
  6. The public sector discount rate encapsulates trade-offs between present and future outcomes. There are several different approaches to selecting a discount rate, which have different implications for how we value the future. For Treasury guidance, see: The Treasury. Discount Rates. Wellington, New Zealand: The Treasury. 2020. https://www.treasury.govt.nz/information-and-services/state-sector-leadership/guidance/financial-reporting-policies-and-guidance/discount-rates. For a recent discussion of the importance of discount rates for valuing environmental impacts from carbon emissions, see: Vivid Economics. Carbon Values Literature Review. BEIS research paper number 2021/049. London, UK: Department for Business, Energy, & Industrial Strategy. 2021. Read
  7. Waka Kotahi is one of the few agencies to regularly publish post-implementation reviews. Between 2016 and 2020 it conducted and published 20 benefit realisation reviews for projects. This comprises a small share of its overall investment portfolio. Waka Kotahi. Benefit Realisation Reviews Superseded August 2020. 2020. Accessed 21 September 2021. https://nzta.govt.nz/planning-and-investment/planning-and-investment-knowledge-base/archive/201821-nltp/monitoring-and-reporting-on-investments/investment-audits/benefit-realisation-reviews/
  8. UK House of Commons Public Accounts Committee. Lessons From Major Projects and Programmes: Thirty-Ninth Report of Session 2019-2021. London, UK: House of Commons. 2021. https://committees.parliament.uk/publications/4491/documents/45207/default/. Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Compendium of Policy Good Practices for Quality Infrastructure Investment. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2020. https://www.oecd.org/mcm/Compendium-CMIN-2020-3-EN.pdf
  9. Office of the Auditor-General. Using “Functional Leadership” to Improve Government Procurement. Wellington, New Zealand: Office of the Auditor-General. 2019. https://oag.parliament.nz/2019/functional-leadership
  10. EY. Lifting Our Gaze: Making Broader Outcomes a Reality in the Delivery of Major Infrastructure Projects. Wellington: Te Waihanga New Zealand Infrastructure Commission. 2020. https://infracom.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Lifting-our-gaze-EY-Infracom.pdf
  11. Office of Government Commerce. Lessons Learnt – Programme and Projects Board. Programmes & Projects, Bulletin 2. OGC: London. March 2009. https://www.finance-ni.gov.uk/sites/default/files/publications/dfp/ogc-lessons-learned-programme-and-project-boards.pdf. Office of Government Commerce. Policy to Successful Delivery. OGC: London. 2010. Office of Government Commerce. Portfolio, Programme and Project Management Maturity Model (P3M3) Introduction and Guide to P3M3. London: Office of Government Commerce. 2010. Read. Office of Government Commerce. Lessons Learned – Communications in Major Government Programmes. Programmes & Projects. Bulletin 6. OCG: London. August 2010. Government Programme & Project Management Profession Recommended Methodology Standards. 2009. KPMG. Portfolio, Programme and Project Management (P3M) Capabilities in Government - Increasing Success Rates and Reducing Costs. 2011. https://www.treasury.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2012-05/p3m-kpmg-mar12.pdf
  1. See Figures 6 and 7 in Commerce Commission. Annual Telecommunications Monitoring Report 2020 Key Facts. Wellington, New Zealand: Commerce Commission. 2020. https://comcom.govt.nz/__data/assets/pdf_file/0030/247377/2020-Annual-Telecommunications-Monitoring-Report-Revised-version-16-March-2021.pdf
  2. NZ Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. Investment Gap or Efficiency Gap? Benchmarking New Zealand’s Investment in Infrastructure. Te Waihanga Research Insights Series. December 2021. Accessed 24 February 2022. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/strategy/reports/te-waihanga-research-insights-december-2021/. International Monetary Fund. 2015. Investment and Capital Stock Dataset (ICSD). Accessed 20 September 2021. https://data.imf.org/?sk=1CE8A55F-CFA7-4BC0-BCE2-256EE65AC0E4
  3. Global Infrastructure Hub. Infrastructure Monitor 2020 Report. 2020. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://www.gihub.org/infrastructure-monitor/
  4. Department for Internal Affairs. Three Waters Reform Programme: National Evidence Base. Wellington, New Zealand: Department for Internal Affairs. 2021. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://www.dia.govt.nz/three-waters-reform-programme-national-evidence-base
  5. Transpower. Whakamana I Te Mauri Hiko - Empowering Our Energy Future. Transpower, March 2020: 33. Read
  6. These principles are higher level, but consistent with principles the Productivity Commission discusses for efficient pricing, investment and funding of infrastructure. See New Zealand Productivity Commission. Better Urban Planning: Final Report. 2017: 307-312. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/assets/Documents/0a784a22e2/Final-report.pdf. Ramsay, K. 2022. Financing and Funding of Infrastructure in New Zealand, https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Financing-and-funding-of-infrastructure-in-New-Zealand.pdf
  7. Because infrastructure services are often shared services, capacity expansions can affect service levels for existing users. For example, if capacity expansion fails to keep pace with population growth, existing users experience deteriorating service levels, such as increased traffic congestion or crowded hospitals. Other funding complications arise when infrastructure networks are interconnected and interdependent. In these cases, capacity expansions in one part of the network affect service levels elsewhere on the network.
  8. The electricity sector also has a spot electricity market, where prices are highly dynamic as they change every 30 minutes at over 200 locations around the country. This approach has been adopted because supply and demand are highly dependent on weather conditions and must be kept in close balance to keep the transmission system stable. Very few residential or small business consumers choose to pay spot market prices, but most large industrial consumers do so because they can cut their demand quickly when prices increase beyond what they’re willing to pay. The electricity sector will be moving to real-time pricing in 2022, which is where prices are set every 5 minutes rather than every 30 minutes. Dynamic pricing is also used in the gas sector. It is not used much in telecommunications as supply and demand do not need to be kept closely in balance.
  9. Ministry of Transport. Briefing to the Incoming Minister: Your Guide to the Opportunities and Challenges in the Transport System. 2020. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2020-12/Transport%20-%20Strategic.pdf
  10. Ministry of Transport. Land Transport Funding and the Myth of the Declining Revenue Stream. 2019. https://www.knowledgehub.transport.govt.nz/assets/TKH-Uploads/TKC-2019/Transport-funding-and-the-myth-of-the-declining-revenue-stream_McGlinchy.pdf
  11. Further details about service-based and cost-reflective pricing are provided in C Hansen, How Funding and Financing Affects Productivity: Implications for Three- Waters Reform and for Local Government Funding and Financing. New Zealand Productivity Commission, 2019: 41-47 and Appendix B. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/assets/Documents/659d4a291a/CSA_Implications-of-3W-reforms.pdf. A more academic treatment is provided in F.A Wolak, Public Utility Pricing and Finance. New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics 2nd Edition, 2008:2.
  12. As previously recommended by Local Government Rates Inquiry, Funding Local Government (“Shand Report”) 2007 https://www.dia.govt.nz/Decommissioned-websites---Rates-Inquiry and New Zealand Productivity Commission. Local Government Funding and Financing. 2019.
  1. Truebridge, Nick. “An Ungodly Law: New Zealand’s Rich Churches Should Pay Rates.“ Stuff, New Zealand. November 28, 2018. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/auckland/108928409/an-ungodly-law-new-zealands-rich-churches-should-pay-rates
  2. See for instance, how rapid transit affects property values. Auckland Council. Insights: Topical Commentary on the Auckland Economy. October 2018. https://www.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/about-auckland-council/business-in-auckland/docsoccasionalpapers/rapid-transit-access-property-values-oct-2018.pdf
  3. There is also the contentious issue that some opponents would characterise a value-capture charge as a tax on the unrealised capital gain on a property.
  4. Targeted rates are not a pure value capture charge as they cannot be applied to value uplift between two points in time.
  5. The New Zealand Productivity Commission. Local Government Funding and Financing, Final Report. NZ Productivity Commission. 2019: 4. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/assets/Documents/a40d80048d/Final-report_Local-government-funding-and-financing.pdf
  6. One perceived challenge of using targeted rates to fund infrastructure is that they can be reversed by future decision-makers. However, this is true of infrastructure funding across all sectors. Decision-makers are always required to carefully consider the implications of any change from original intentions. This is dictated through the obligations placed on board directors and elected members through various legislation.
  7. Public transport is partly subsidised from rates and fuel taxes. This reflects the fact that public transport provision helps reduce road congestion. For empirical evidence, see: Adler, Martin, and Jos N. van Ommeren. Does Public Transit Reduce Car Travel Externalities? Netherlands: Tinberg Institute. 2015. https://papers.tinbergen.nl/15011.pdf. Anderson, Michael L. “Subways, Strikes, and Slowdowns: The Impacts of Public Transit on Traffic Congestion.” American Economic Review, 104, no. 9. 2014: 2763-96. https://www.nber.org/papers/w18757. Ministry of Transport. The Transport Impacts of the 20 June 2013 Storm. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Transport. 2013. Accessed September 21, 2021. Read
  8. Work and Income New Zealand. Winter Energy Payment. 2019. Accessed September 22, 2021. https://www.workandincome.govt.nz/products/a-z-benefits/winter-energy-payment.html
  9. Kline P. and E Moretti. “People, Places and Public Policy: Some Simple Welfare Economics of Local Economic Development Programs.” IZA Discussion Papers No. 7735. 2013. http://hdl.handle.net/10419/89941
  10. Glaeser, Edward L., “The Economic Approach to Cities.” Harvard Institute of Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 2149, KSG Working Paper No. RWP08-003. January 2008. Available at https://ssrn.com/abstract=1080294 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1080294
  11. PwC. Cost-Benefit Analysis for a National Policy Statement on Urban Development: Final Report for the Ministry for the Environment. July 2020: 12. https://environment.govt.nz/assets/Publications/Files/NPS-UD-CBA-final.pdf
  12. Caldera Sanchez, Aida and Dan Andrews “Residential Mobility and Public Policy in OECD Countries.” OECD Journal: Economic Studies, Vol. 2011/1. 2011: 199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/eco_studies-2011-5kg0vswqt240
  13. Joyce, S. “Government Delivers 1b for Broadband Commitment.” May 20, 2011. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/govt-delivers-1b-broadband-commitment
  14. Adams, A “Government Launches Next Stage Broadband Rollout.” March 13, 2015. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/govt-launches-next-stage-broadband-rollout
  15. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. “Broadband and Mobile Programmes.” https://www.mbie.govt.nz/science-and-technology/it-communications-and-broadband/fast-broadband/broadband-and-mobile-programmes/
  16. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. “Broadband and Mobile Programmes.” https://www.mbie.govt.nz/science-and-technology/it-communications-and-broadband/fast-broadband/broadband-and-mobile-programmes/
  1. Brownlee, G. New Zealand Government Release. “100 Million for cycleways.” February 19, 2014. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/100-million-urban-cycleways
  2. Carter, D. “Lifting Investment in Irrigation.” New Zealand Government Release: Budget 2011. May 10, 2015. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/budget-2011-lifting-investment-irrigation
  3. Christchurch City Council. Christchurch Regeneration Acceleration Facility: Roading and Transport Improvements Investment Case. October 31, 2019. https://www.ccc.govt.nz/assets/Documents/The-Council/Plans-Strategies-Policies-Bylaws/Policies/Cost-Sharing/Christchurch-Regeneration-Acceleration-Facility-Roading-and-Transport-Investment-Case.pdf
  4. Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. “Housing Infrastructure Fund." https://www.hud.govt.nz/urban-development/housing-infrastructure-fund/
  5. Smith P. and B English. “New Zealand Government Release. 1b Fund Accelerate Housing Infrastructure.” July 3, 2016. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/1b-fund-accelerate-housinginfrastructure
  6. Hon Shane Jones. “The Provincial Growth Fund.” New Zealand Government Release. December 2017. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2018-02/December%202017%20PGF%20Cabinet%20Paper_0.pdf. Only some of the total fund is used for infrastructure investment. As of 31 March 2020, $533.4 million was committed to rail; $376.5 million to tourism and $244.9 million to roads.
  7. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. “Tourism Infrastructure Fund.” https://www.mbie.govt.nz/immigration-and-tourism/tourism/tourism-funding/tourism-infrastructure-fund/. This fund is expected to provide up to $25 million per year.
  8. New Zealand Government Release. “The New Zealand Upgrade Programme.” January 29, 2020. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/feature/new-zealand-upgrade-programme
  9. New Zealand Government Release “New Zealand Upgrade Programme Kept on Track.” 2021, June 4, 2021. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/nz-upgrade-programme-kept-track
  10. New Zealand Government Release. “Major Investment Infrastructure Projects. May 14, 2020. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/major-investment-infrastructure-projects
  11. New Zealand Government Release. “Government Announces Allocation of Three Water Funds for Councils.” August 4, 2020. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/government-announces-allocation-three-waters-funds-councils
  12. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. “Māori and Public Housing Renewable Energy Fund.” August 2020. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/building-and-energy/energy-and-natural-resources/low-emissions-economy/energy-efficiency-in-new-zealand/maori-and-public-housing-renewable-energy-fund/
  13. Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. “Housing Acceleration Fund”. https://www.hud.govt.nz/urban-development/the-housing-acceleration-fund/
  14. Including $1bn Infrastructure Acceleration Fund, $350m Māori Infrastructure Fund. Ministry of Housing and Urban Development. “Whai Kāinga Whai Oranga.” https://www.hud.govt.nz/maihi-and-maori-housing/whai-kainga-whai-oranga/
  15. The Treasury. “Wellbeing Budget 2021: Securing Our Recovery – Water.” https://budget.govt.nz/budget/2021/wellbeing/budget-investments/reforms-intergenerational-wellbeing/water.htm
  16. Rt Hon Jacinda Ardern and Hon Nanaia Mahuta. “Government to Provide Support for Water Reforms, Jobs and Growth.” New Zealand Government Release. July 15, 2021. https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/government-provide-support-water-reforms-jobs-and-growth
  17. Hon James Shaw. “Foundations Laid for Strong Climate Action.” Press release. May 20, 2021. https://budget.govt.nz/budget/pdfs/releases/r9-shaw-foundations-laid-for-strong-climate-action.pdf. The $3 billion figure is an estimate of funds allocated by the fund over 5 years, from 2022. The actual size of the fund may differ in practice.
  18. Waka Kotahi. “Allocation of Funds to Activity Class” https://www.beehive.govt.nz/release/government-provide-support-water-reforms-jobs-and-growth
  19. Infrastructure New South Wales. “Restart NSW.” https://www.infrastructure.nsw.gov.au/restart-nsw/
  1. Canada Infrastructure Bank. “About Us.” https://cib-bic.ca/en/about-us/
  2. Productivity Commission. Local Government Funding and Financing: Final Report. Wellington, New Zealand: Productivity Commission. 2019. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/assets/Documents/a40d80048d/Final-report_Local-government-funding-and-financing.pdf
  3. Lenders and credit-rating agencies place various debt limits on councils, the most common one being a requirement that their ratio of total debt to income must stay under 270%. Generally, if a council exceeds 270% the agencies will downgrade the council’s credit rating, forcing it to pay higher interest rates. Although COVID-19 has significantly affected debt ratios for many councils, many have retained their credit ratings. This is because agencies recognise serious shocks can occur and in these circumstances, they pay considerable attention to a council’s governance strength and plans and actions to return to acceptable financial conditions.
  4. Even if a council is well within its debt ceiling, it can struggle to increase debt levels to fund more infrastructure due to public opposition to incurring debt that might result in future rates increases.
  5. Productivity Commission. Local Government Funding and Financing: Final Report. Wellington, New Zealand: Productivity Commission. 2019. https://www.productivity.govt.nz/assets/Documents/a40d80048d/Final-report_Local-government-funding-and-financing.pdf
  6. To date, the Milldale development in Auckland is the only SPV that has been completed. This involved Auckland Council, together with Crown Infrastructure Partners, Treasury and developer Fulton Hogan, establishing an SPV that raised nearly $50 million in long term finance to fund five bulk roading and wastewater infrastructure projects for a new housing subdivision. The SPV is responsible for building infrastructure to the specifications of Auckland Transport and Watercare, who become the owners once the infrastructure is completed. In principle, SPVs could also be used for infrastructure upgrades needed to service new development in existing urban areas. To work in those situations, the loan-servicing charges would need to be compulsory for existing property owners, rather than negotiated on a voluntary basis.
  7. NZ Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. New Zealand Public Private Partnership Model Review. 2021. Read
  8. This includes three Ministry of Education projects, delivering 11 new primary and secondary schools in Auckland, Christchurch, Hamilton and Queenstown; three Department of Corrections projects, delivering 2060 additional prison beds at Auckland Prison, the Auckland South Correctional Facility and Waikeria Prison; and two Waka Kotahi, NZ Transport Agency projects, Transmission Gully and Pūhoi to Warkworth, delivering c.45km of Motorway.
  9. Infrastructure Partnerships Australia. Measuring the Value and Service Outcomes of Social Infrastructure PPPs in Australia and New Zealand. 2020. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Social_Infrastructure_PPPs_Report.pdf
  10. While significant issues have occurred on Waka Kotahi’s Transmission Gully and Puhoi to Warkworth projects, these have been driven by a range of factors including those not specific to the procurement model such as COVID 19, site conditions, several storm events, and the 2016 Kaikoura earthquake.
  11. Adversarial consenting processes have been shown to increase costs to review and consent projects, and potentially also reduce environmental outcomes due to delays. See for instance Kagan, R.A. “Trying to Have it Both Ways: Local Discretion, Central Control, and Adversarial Legalism in American Environmental Regulation.” Ecology LQ, 25, 1999: 718 Read
  12. This is sometimes called the ‘double veto’ effect. The overall impact is to delay or stop projects. This is well documented in the case of housing development, for instance Fischel, William A. “Centralized Control, Do We Want a Double-Veto System?” Journal of the American Planning Association 55, no. 2. 1989: 205-206.
  1. The consent decisions are for wind farms that became operational since 1 January 2010 or the consent decision was made since 1 January 2010. The ten decisions are Lammermoor (630 MW, 5.4 years), Hauauru Ma Raki (540 MW, 2.9 years), Kaiwera (240 MW, 3.8 years) and Turitea (222 MW, 3.1 years). The six smaller ones are Waipipi (133 MW, 1.2 years), Te Uku (64.4 MW, 1.9 years), Mill Creek (59.8 MW, 1.0 years), Mahinerangi (36 MW, 3.3 years) Mt Stuart (7.65 MW, 1.9 years) and Flat Hill (6.8 MW, 1.2 years). Note, the timeframe for Lammermoor is conservative as it only includes the process to January 2012, which is when Meridian withdrew its consent application after opponents appealed a High Court decision to the Court of Appeal. Meridian has since re-commenced the consent process.
  2. Data on consenting timeframes for offshore windfarms is from Salvador, Santiago, Luis Gimeno, and F. Javier Sanz Larruga. “Streamlining the Consent Process for the Implementation of Offshore Wind Farms in Spain, Considering Existing Regulations in Leading European Countries.” Ocean & Coastal Management, 157. 2018: 68-85. A 2010 review found that best-practice European countries averaged less than 1.5 years to consent a wind farm. Average processing timeframes were longer for onshore windfarms than for offshore windfarms. The European Wind Energy Association. Wind Barriers: Administrative and Grid Access Barriers to Wind Power. July 2010. http://www.ewea.org/fileadmin/files/library/publications/reports/WindBarriers_report.pdf
  3. The Royal Commission. Report of the Royal Commission on Auckland Governance. Volume 1. March 2009. https://www.parliament.nz/en/pb/papers-presented/current-papers/document/49DBHOH_PAP17934_1/auckland-governance-report-of-the-royal-commission-on#RelatedAnchor
  4. Auckland City Council. “Auckland-Manukau Eastern Transport Initiative (AMETI).” 2002. Read. https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/politics/local-overnment/125555558/fundingsqueeze-slows-aucklands-14b-eastern-busway
  5. Tanko, Michael, and Matthew Burke. “Why Busways? Styles of Planning and Mode-Choice Decision-Making in Brisbane’s Transport Networks.” Australian Planner, 52 (3). 2015. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07293682.2015.1047873?journalCode=rapl20
  6. Global BRT Data. Accessed February 14, 2022. https://brtdata.org/location/oceania/australia/brisbane
  7. Moore David, Jeff Loan, Sally Wyatt, Kelvin Woock, Sally Carrick, and Zabard Hartmann. “The- Cost of Consenting Infrastructure Projects in NZ: A Report for The New Zealand Infrastructure Commission/Te Waihanga.” Sapere. July 2021. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/assets/The-cost-of-consenting-infrastructure-projects-in-NZ-final-report.pdf
  8. This is based on an average capital cost of around $2.4 million per megawatt of wind farm capacity, based on wind farm projects completed over the last decade. Wind farm costs are expected to fall in the future due to technology and manufacturing improvements, so this represents a conservative estimate. Transpower estimates that an additional 14.8 gigawatts of new electricity generation are needed over the next 30 years. Note these forecast additions include additional wind, solar and geothermal generation plus added firming generation of an unspecified type. The 14.8-gigawatt figure was derived from data in Figure 4 tab in spreadsheet Whakamana i te Mauri Hiko Data Report Table, by adding to the net increase in generation capacity, the capacity of plant expected to be decommissioned over the next 30 years. The spreadsheet is available at “Whakamana I Te Mauri Hiko - Empowering Our Energy Future,” n.d. Accessed September 1, 2021. https://www.transpower.co.nz/resources/whakamana-i-te-maurihiko-empowering-our-energy-future
  9. Electricity Act 1992, Telecommunications Act 2001, Land Transport Management Act 2003, Defence Act 1990, Corrections Act 2004, Health Act 1956, Education and Training Act 2020, Water Services Bill (as at 27 Aug 2021)
  10. 416. As part of Te Ara Tupua Project in Wellington. Waka Kotahi – NZ Transport Agency. “Te Ara Tupua.” Wellington. https://www.nzta.govt.nz/projects/te-ara-tupua/
  11. As part of the Northern Corridor Improvements Project in Auckland. Waka Kotahi – NZ Transport Agency. “Auckland Northern Corridor.” https://www.nzta.govt.nz/projects/the-western-ring-route/auckland-northern-corridor/
  12. Environmental Protection Authority. “NZ Waterview Connection: Resource Consent Application.” 2011. https://www.epa.govt.nz/database-search/rma-applications/view/NSP000012
  1. Tilton, D. “Temporary Traffic Management – Auckland is Awash with Cones.” 2019. https://www.greaterauckland.org.nz/2019/04/16/temporary-traffic-management-auckland-is-awash-with-cones/. One recent pipe repair in Wellington incurred traffic management costs that averaged $10,000 a week. Tom Hunt. “$31,000 for One Week on One Project: Traffic Management in Wellington.” Stuff, June 5, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/dominion-post/news/wellington/125346383/31000-forone-week-on-one-project-traffic-management-in-wellington
  2. Bealing, Michael. Falling from Heights – Cost Benefit Analysis of Scaffolding for Single Storey Houses.” Branz. 2017. Read
  3. Infrastructure New Zealand. “Building Regions.” August 2019. https://infrastructure.org.nz/building-regions-a-vision-for-local-government-planning-law-and-funding-reform/
  4. Waka Kotahi – NZ Transport Agency. “Kaikōura Earthquake Response.” https://www.nzta.govt.nz/projects/kaikoura-earthquake-response/
  5. For instance, Norway has built tunnels at a relatively lower cost from opportunities to learn and improve technology and methods. This includes practices around maximum allowable gradients, minimum required rock cover, and rock mass quality to address leakage issues. We Digital Magazine. “The Highway of the Fjords.” 2018. Accessed 22 September 2021. https://www.webuildvalue.com/en/infrastructure/the-highway-of-the-fjords.html. Bergh-Christensen, Jan, and Morten Knudsmoen. “Norwegian Sub Sea tunnels.” Tunnels & Tunnelling International, 35, no. 3. 2003. https://trid.trb.org/view/644566. Ostlid, Havard, and Karl Melby. “Road Tunnels in Norway: A Fifty Year Experience.” Norwegian Tunnelling Society: Subsea Tunnels, no 18. 2009. https://nff.no/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2020/04/Publication-18.pdf
  6. West D. Technology and the Innovation Economy. Brookings. October 19, 2011. https://www.brookings.edu/research/technology-and-the-innovation-economy/
  7. Miller, Ben, and Robert D. Atkinson. “Raising European Productivity Growth Through ICT.” June 2, 2014. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3079844
  8. Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment. Business Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Use and Productivity Growth in New Zealand. Wellington. October 2017. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/dmsdocument/3338-business-ict-use-and-productivity-growth-pdf
  9. Doran B. and A Trotman. “Preserving Our Heritage: New Zealand Made Computers.” The Rutherford Journal. The New Zealand Journal for the History and Philosophy of Science and Technology. http://www.rutherfordjournal.org/article050106.html
  10. Infrastructure South Australia. 20 Year State Infrastructure Strategy. May 2020. https://www.infrastructure.sa.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/197512/20-Year-State-Infrastructure-Strategy-Snapshot.pdf. Digital Transformation Agency. Vision 2025, Digital Transformation Agency. 2018. https://www.dta.gov.au/sites/default/files/files/digital-transformation-strategy/digital-transformation-strategy.pdf. Infrastructure Australia. Australian Infrastructure Plan. February 2019. https://www.infrastructureaustralia.gov.au/sites/default/files/2019-06/Australian_Infrastructure_Plan.pdf. Government of Canada. “Canada’s Digital Charter: Trust in a Digital World.” https://www.ic.gc.ca/eic/site/062.nsf/eng/h_00108.html. Infrastructure Canada. Investing in Canada, Canada’s Long-Term Infrastructure Plan. https://www.infrastructure.gc.ca/site/alt-format/pdf/plan/icp-pic/IC-InvestingInCanadaPlan-ENG.pdf. Ministry of Economic Affairs and Employment of Finland. Digital Framework Finland. https://www.businessfinland.fi/496a6f/globalassets/julkaisut/digital-finland-framework.pdf. Ministry of Transport and Communications. Turning Finland into the World Leader In Communications Networks - Digital Strategy 2025. 2019. Read. Department of Communications, Energy, and Natural Resources. Doing More With Digital – National Strategy for Ireland. July 2013. https://assets.gov.ie/27518/7081cec170e34c39b75cbec799401b82.pdf. Government of Ireland. Project Ireland 2040 - National Development Plan. 2018. https://www.gov.ie/pdf/?file=https://assets.gov.ie/37937/12baa8fe0dcb43a78122fb316dc51277.pdf#page=47
  1. NZTeach. “NZTech Inform - Digital Skills Aotearoa Report 2021.” February 9, 2021. https://nztech.org.nz/2021/02/09/nztech-inform-digital-skills-for-our-digital-future/
  2. City of Boston. “Street Bump.” Accessed February 14, 2022. https://www.boston.gov/transportation/street-bump
  3. National Infrastructure Commission. Data for the Public Good. London, UK: National Infrastructure Commission. 2018. https://nic.org.uk/app/uploads/Data-for-the-Public-Good-NIC-Report.pdf
  4. Deloitte. Developing the Freight Sector Elements. Wellington, New Zealand: Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. 2020. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Freight-Sector-Review.pdf
  5. National Infrastructure Commission. Data for the Public Good. London, UK: National Infrastructure Commission. 2018: 19. https://nic.org.uk/app/uploads/Data-for-the-Public-Good-NIC-Report.pdf
  6. Beca/Polis Consulting Group. “Preparing for Technological Change in the Infrastructure Sector.” Prepared for Te Waihanga. May 2021: 6. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Preparing-for-Technological-Change-in-the-Infrastructure-Sector.pdf
  7. KiwiRail. “Digital Shields.” Accessed February 14, 2022. https://www.kiwirail.co.nz/what-we-do/projects/wellington/hutt-valley-line/digital-shields/
  8. EY. Strategic Outline Business Case for the Delivery of Digital Built Britain Programme Level 3. Digital Built Britain. 2015: 3. Read
  9. McKinsey Global Institute. Infrastructure Productivity: How to Save $1 trillion a Year. January 2013: 61. Read
  10. Australian Renewable Energy Agency. “National Map Datasets National ARENA Datasets.” Accessed September 22, 2021. https://data.gov.au/dataset/ds-dga-9bac2ca8-94f7-47aa-93aae9315f683237/details
  11. New Zealand Infrastructure Commission - Te Waihanga. Infrastructure Quarterly: Quarter 1, 2021. 2021. Accessed September 21, 2021. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/projects/infrastructure-quarterly/
  12. Sense Partners. New Zealand’s Infrastructure Deficit: Quantifying the Gap and Path to Close It? 2021. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Infrastructure-Challenge-Report.pdf
  13. Ministry of Business, Innovation & Employment. National Construction Pipeline Report. 2019. https://wip.org.nz/
  14. Anthony John. “Why Wages are Higher in Australia and What it Says About New Zealand’s Economy.” Stuff. July 24, 2021. Accessed September 12, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/business/industries/125827143/why-wages-are-higher-in-australia-and-what-it-says-about-new-zealandseconomy
  15. WIP. “Workforce Supply and Demand Model.” 2021. Accessed February 14, 2022. https://wip.org.nz/supply-and-demand/
  16. Forbes Stephen. “Skilled Labour Shortages Hit Auckland Infrastructure Projects.” Stuff. July 28, 2021. Accessed September 20, 2021. https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/politics/local-democracy-reporting/300368479/skilled-labour-shortages-hit-auckland-infrastructure-projects. Report available here: Michael Webster. Central Interceptor Report for June 2021. Auckland: Watercare. July 29, 2021:90 – 99. https://wslpwstoreprd.blob.core.windows.net/kentico-media-libraries-prod/watercarepublicweb/media/watercare-media-library/board-meetings/combined_public_board_papers_29_july_2021.pdf
  17. New Zealand Immigration. Construction and Infrastructure Skill Shortage List. May 27, 2019. https://skillshortages.immigration.govt.nz/assets/uploads/canterbury-skill-shortage-list.pdf
  18. Te Tai Ōhanga – The Treasury. Treasury Report – Capital Panel Advice Budget 2021. Report No: T2021/465. File Number: ST-4-8-4-11-2. August 2021. https://budget.govt.nz/information-release/2021/pdf/b21-t2021-465-4423983.pdf
  19. See Asset Management Plan scores across agencies as part of the Treasury. Investor Confidence Rating. Wellington, New Zealand: The Treasury. 2021. https://www.treasury.govt.nz/sites/default/files/2021-07/icr-results-analysis-jul21.pdf
  1. Worksafe New Zealand. “Work Related Fatalities.” https://data.worksafe.govt.nz/graph/detail/fatalities?industry=Construction&startDate=2011-01&endDate=2021-05
  2. Statistics New Zealand. “Work Related Injury Targets at a Glance 2008-2019.” https://www.stats.govt.nz/reports/work-related-injury-targets-at-a-glance-2008-19
  3. Bryson, Kate, Janette Doblas, Christopher Stachowski, and Andy Walmsley. Suicide in New Zealand’s Construction Industry Workforce: Factors Identified in Coronial Reports. BRANZ, 2019. https://www.branz.co.nz/pubs/research-reports/er40/
  4. Submissions from Construction Health and Safety New Zealand Trust. https://www.chasnz.org/
  5. Manatū Whāhini – Ministry for Woman. Trades Industries – Beyond Construction. 2021. Accessed September 15, 2021. Read
  6. The Institution of Professional Engineers New Zealand (IPENZ). Women in the Engineering Workplace Snapshot 2015. IPENZ, 2015. https://www.engineeringnz.org/resources/womenengineering/
  7. Brockbank, T, E Archer, S Pole, S Cotter Tait, and H Columbus. “Building Equity into the Infrastructure-Led Recovery for Māori and Pasifika.” The Spinoff. May 31, 2020. https://thespinoff.co.nz/atea/01-06-2020/building-equity-into-the-infrastructure-led-recovery-for-Māori-and-pasifika/
  8. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment. “Māori in the Labour Market - December 2020. Quarter (Unadjusted).” Accessed September 10, 2021. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/dmsdocument/13559-maori-in-the-labour-market-december-2020-quarter-unadjusted
  9. HM Treasury. National Infrastructure Plan for Skills. September 2015. Accessed September 15, 2021. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/national-infrastructure-plan-for-skills
  10. See Section 4.4 in Infrastructure Australia. An Assessment of Australia’s Future Infrastructure Needs.” June 2019. https://www.infrastructureaustralia.gov.au/sites/default/files/2020-10/Audit%202019_Full%20pdf_Updates%20September%202020.pdf
  11. McKinsey Global Institute. Infrastructure Productivity: How to Save $1 trillion a Year. January 2013. Read
  12. This allows for increasing diversity because traditional career pathways, such as engineering degrees, tend to have a lack of gender and racial diversity.
  13. Construction Sector Accord. “People Development.” https://www.constructionaccord.nz/transformation-plan/people-development/
  14. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, BRANZ and Pacifecon (NZ) Ltd. National Construction Pipeline Report 2020: A Forecast of Building and Construction Activity. Wellington. 2020. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/dmsdocument/12380-national-construction-pipeline-report-2020
  15. Government Project Delivery Profession. Project Delivery Capability Framework. Version 2. November 2018. Read
  16. Institute of Public Works Engineering Australasia. “IPWEA Asset Management Pathway” https://www.ipwea.org/education/ipwea-am-pathway
  17. House of Commons Public Accounts Committee. Lessons From Major Projects and Programmes. Thirty-Ninth Report of Session 2019–21. 2019. https://committees.parliament.uk/work/762/lessons-from-major-projects-and-programmes/publications/
  18. University of Oxford. “Major Projects Leadership Academy.” https://www.sbs.ox.ac.uk/programmes/executive-education/custom-executive-education/major-projects-leadership-academy
  19. Government Project Delivery Profession. Project Delivery Capability Framework. Version 2. November 2018. Read
  20. Spencer, Fiona. “Infrastructure and Projects Authority and Project Delivery Profession in Government.” In Government Project Delivery Profession. Major Projects Leadership Academy. May 20, 2020. https://assets.crowncommercial.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/FINAL-MPLA-Supplier- Engagement-Event-Slides-version-for-publication-21052020.pdf
  1. Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, BRANZ and Pacifecon (NZ) Ltd. National Construction Pipeline Report 2020: A Forecast of Building and Construction Activity. Wellington. 2020. https://www.mbie.govt.nz/dmsdocument/12380-national-construction-pipeline-report-2020
  2. Workforce Information Platform. “Labour Forecast.” New Zealand. https://wip.org.nz/labour-forecast/
  3. New Zealand Infrastructure Commission/Te Waihanga. “Pipeline.” Wellington, New Zealand. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/projects/
  4. Construction Sector Accord. “People Development.” https://www.constructionaccord.nz/transformation-plan/people-development/
  5. New Zealand Infrastructure Commision - Te Waihanga. “Investment Gap or Efficiency Gap? Benchmarking New Zealand’s Investment in Infrastructure”. Te Waihanga Research Insights Series. December 2021. https://www.tewaihanga.govt.nz/assets/Uploads/Research-Insights-December-2021.pdf
  6. International Monetary Fund. Making Public Investment More Efficient: Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund. June 2015. https://www.imf.org/external/np/pp/eng/2015/061115.pdf
  7. Glaeser Edward L. and James M Poterba. “Introduction to Economic Analysis and Infrastructure Investment”. In Economic Analysis and Infrastructure Investment, edited by Edward L Glaeser. and James M Poterba, 39-100, National Bureau of Economic Research, November 15-16, 2019. https://www.nber.org/books-and-chapters/economic-analysis-and-infrastructure-investment/introduction-economic-analysis-and-infrastructure-investment
  8. Glaeser Edward L. and James M Poterba. “Introduction to Economic Analysis and Infrastructure Investment”. In Economic Analysis and Infrastructure Investment, edited by Edward L Glaeser. and James M Poterba, 39-100, National Bureau of Economic Research, November 15-16, 2019. https://www.nber.org/books-and-chapters/economic-analysis-and-infrastructure-investment/introduction-economic-analysis-and-infrastructure-investment
  9. Tafferd Kylie, Mark Williams, and Loretta Garrow. Women in Trades: “Part 2: How Women Have Succeeded in Trades Where They Are Traditionally Under-Represented.” 2011. https://ako.ac.nz/assets/Knowledge-centre/What-are-the-characteristics-of-an-effective-learning-journey-for-women-entering-trades/Part-2-How-women-have-succeeded-in-the-trades-where-they-have-traditionally-been-under-represented.pdf
  10. Manatū Whāhine – Ministry of Women. “Women in Trades: Interviews with Employers and Tradeswomen (2011).” November 2011. https://women.govt.nz/documents/women-tradesinterviews-employers-and-tradeswomen-2011
  11. Catalyst. “Why Diversity and Inclusion Matters”. 2020. https://www.catalyst.org/research/why-diversity-and-inclusion-matter/
  12. For example, initiatives by the Institute of Professional Engineers, the Diversity Agenda, Engineering New Zealand, and Industry Training Organisations such as Connexis.
  13. Construction Sector Accord. “People Development Progress.” https://www.constructionaccord.nz/progress/people-development-progress/
  14. Māori and Pasifika Trades Training. “Our Trainees are Building Auckland’s Future.” https://www.maoripasifikatrades.co.nz/
  15. He Toki. “The Next Generation of Māori Training.” http://hetoki.co.nz/
  16. Fernando, Achela. “Perception of Barriers to Career Progression by Women Engineers and Engineering Students.” 2011. https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Perception-of-barriers-to-career-progression-by-and-Fernando/2d5aa3e6050513e3f166ae0aed6d526a366b5748